Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris: executive summary: The Task Force on the Management of Stable Angina Pectoris of the European Society of Cardiology

Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 14.72). 07/2006; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl001
Source: OAI
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metoprolol is the one of the most commonly used b-blockers in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and it is extensively metabolized in the liver undergoing oxidation by CYP2D6 isoenzyme of cytochrome P450. Gene encoding the CYP2D6 enzyme is characterized by genetic polymorphism. The CYP2D6 oxidation polymorphism has a major impact on the effectiveness and safety of the treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma concentration of metoprolol and the CYP2D6 genotype in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods: Fifty patients were interviewed and subsequently enrolled into the study. The patients received metoprolol twice daily at a dose of 50 mg. The blood samples were analyzed for two major defective alleles for CYP2D6 – CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*3 – by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Metoprolol concentration in plasma was determined by using the new and unique high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in the author’s own modification with Corona CAD detector (Charged Aerosol Detection). Results: In the test group, genotypes conditioning poor oxidation (PM) occurred in 3 patients (6%), while 47 patients (94%) had genotypes coding for extensive metabolism (EM). Patients with PM genotypes had significantly higher plasma concentrations of metoprolol than the patients with EM genotype (mean 92.25 SD 36.78 ng/ml vs. mean 168.22 SD 5.61 ng/ml, respectively). Established relationships were statistically significant (NIR test, p = 0.0009). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the CYP2D6 genotype remains a major determinant of the metoprolol plasma concentrations. The pharmacogenetic effect is likely to have consequences on both, the clinical benefit of metoprolol treatment and adverse drug reactions. The use of Corona CAD detector seems to be a very good alternative method for the determination of metoprolol concentration in plasma.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 06/2014; 66:511-514. DOI:10.1016/j.pharep.2013.12.010 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and it often clinically manifests as stable angina. The optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of patients with stable angina may be controversial. Coronary revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome, whereas recent trials have failed to demonstrate the superiority of myocardial revascularization over optimal medical therapy in stable angina. The treatment of a patient with stable angina is still challenging, as the definition of "stable" and "unstable" is not so clear. Moreover, the benefit of PCI in terms of quality of life is evident, and independent from its neutral effect on survival. To date, the best timing of coronary angiography and the role of further investigations on myocardial ischemia still need to be defined. On the other hand, in spite of the clear benefit on clinical outcome of an early invasive treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome, elderly are often undertreated, whereas the overtreatment with PCI of stable patients undergoing non cardiac surgery might even increase ischemic events due to the premature discontinuation of the antiplatelet therapy, without reducing the perioperative risk.
    01/2013; 3(1):27-38.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several risk scores are available for prognostic purpose in patients presenting with chest pain. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare Grace, Pursuit, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), Goldman, Sanchis, and Florence Prediction Rule (FPR) to exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), decision making, and outcome in the emergency setting. METHODS: Patients with nondiagnostic ECGs and normal troponins and without history of coronary disease underwent exercise ECG. Patients with positive testing underwent coronary angiography; otherwise, they were discharged. End point was the composite of coronary stenosis at angiography or cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina, and revascularization at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Of 508 patients considered, 320 had no history of coronary disease: 29 were unable to perform exercise testing, and finally, 291 were enrolled. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for Grace, Pursuit, TIMI, Goldman, Sanchis, and FPR were 0.59, 0.68, 0.69, 0.543, 0.66, and 0.74, respectively (P < .05 FPR vs Goldman and Grace). In patients with negative exercise ECG and overall low risk score, only the FPR effectively succeeded in recognizing those who achieved the end point; in patients with high risk score, the additional presence of carotid stenosis and recurrent angina predicted the end point (odds ratio, 12 and 5, respectively). Overall, logistic regression analysis including exercise ECG, coronary risk factors, and risk scores showed that exercise ECG was an independent predictor of coronary events (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The FPR effectively succeeds in ruling out coronary events in patients categorized with overall low risk score. Exercise ECG, nonetheless being an independent predictor of coronary events could be considered questionable in this subset of patients.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 03/2012; 30(9). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2012.01.028 · 1.15 Impact Factor