Mineral Nutrition of Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum)

Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.79). 06/2013; 37:1274-1284. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/37.9.1274
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Acacia acuminata is a preferred host of the root hemiparasitic tree, Santalum spicatum (sandalwood). Comparison between nutrient content of adult trees of sandalwood and results for an earlier study of the mistletoe, Amyema preissii , on the same host species, A. acuminata , showed similar high levels of K and Na and low levels of Zn in both parasites compared with the host plants. Differences in K, Ca, N and Cu levels between parasitized and uninfected Acacias imply that the host plant contributes to the nutrition of sandalwood. The high K/Ca ratio in sandalwood confirms that K uptake in preference to Ca is a general feature of all categories of angiosperm parasites. Patterns of distribution of nutrients between various parts of sandalwood and A. acuminata depend on the type of nutrient, but levels are usually highest in leaves of both species and the haustoria. Although K, Ca and Na are much lower in the kernels than in vegetative parts of the parasite, only seedlings without supplementary Ca in a nutrient omission experiment failed to grow at all in the absence of hosts. Growth is not dependent on the level of K in the unattached plants but other evidence indicates it may have a role in water uptake in the attached plant. Calcium supply has a marked effect on internal Ca levels and growth of unattached plants. Compared with field plants, levels of Ca, and to a lesser extent Zn, were much higher in plants of the Ca/K treatment that produced greatest growth over 34 weeks. Haustorial formation is enhanced by the presence of A. acuminata roots. However, competition for nutrients, especially Ca, from co-planted A. acuminata seedlings results in suppression of growth of young sandalwood compared with their growth in the absence of the host species.

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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the performance of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) parasitising two N2-fixing woody hosts (Acacia acuminata and Allocasuarina huegeliana) and a non N2-fixing host (Eucalyptus loxophleba subsp. loxophleba) on farmland at Kwobrup, Western Australia. The host seedlings were planted in 1991, and the S. spicatum were direct seeded at host age five years. Survival and growth of the S. spicatum were assessed at age three years. S. spicatum survival was significantly higher when planted next to A. acuminata (86 %) than A. huegeliana (29 %), and all seedlings next to E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba died within two years of establishment. Mean height and stem diameter of S. spicatum parasitizing A. acuminata were significantly greater than those parasitising A. huegeliana. The initial presence of S. spicatum did not reduce host survival or growth.
    Australian Forestry 01/2000; 63(1):60-65. DOI:10.1080/00049158.2000.10674814 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of seven 'jam variants' (Acacia acuminata typical variant, A. acuminata narrow­phyllode variant, A. acuminata small­seed variant, A. acuminata/burkittii variant 1, A. acuminata/ burkittii variant 2, A. burkittii and A.oldfieldii) on the survival and growth of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) was examined in two relatively low­rainfall locations, Dowerin and Morawa, in the northern and eastern Wheatbelt of Western Australia. During the course of the trial (2000–2008) the mean annual rainfall was only 326 mm at Dowerin and 259 mm at Morawa. In July 2000, seedlings from 84 families from 18 separate populations and representing each of the seven different jam variants were planted on cleared farmland at both locations. A total of 4032 host seedlings were planted at each site. At host age 2 y (April 2002), S. spicatum seeds were sown near 1807 host plants at the first site and near 1397 hosts at the second. The different jam variants were associated with clear differences in sandalwood performance at both sites. At age 1 y, mean survival of sandalwood was significantly greater near A. acuminata small­ seed variant (64%) and A. acuminata narrow­phyllode variant (50–54%) than near A. acuminata typical variant (21–34%). This pattern of sandalwood survival between the different jam variants was similar at age 6 y. At age 6 y, the mean stem diameter (at 150 mm above ground) of sandalwood was the greatest near A. acuminata small­seed variant within each site: 62 mm at Dowerin and 47 mm at Morawa. The mean stem diameter of sandalwood near A. acuminata typical variant was 51 mm at Dowerin and only 25 mm at Morawa. Stem borers were more common in A. acuminata typical variant than in the other jam variants at Dowerin. No borers were observed in the jam variants at Morawa. At both sites, gall rust was observed in each of the jam variants except A.oldfieldii.
    Australian Forestry 01/2009; 72(4). DOI:10.1080/00049158.2009.10676297 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines heterotrophic gain of carbon and mineral composition of Santalum album partnered singly in pot culture with three beneficial woody N2-fixing hosts and a non-beneficial eucalypt host. Based on dry matter gains of the parasite at 33 weeks, Sesbania formosa proved the best host followed by Acacia ampliceps and A. trachycarpa while no improvement in growth was seen with Eucalyptus camaldulensis as a host in comparison with Santalum grown without a host. Numbers of haustoria formed by Santalum on roots of different hosts were poorly correlated with host quality. A small proportion of haustoria on legume hosts were attached to root nodules. Santalum partnered with any host or grown alone exhibited self-parasitism where haustoria attached to its own root system.
    Australian Forestry 01/1999; 62(2):128-138. DOI:10.1080/00049158.1999.10674774 · 0.92 Impact Factor


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Sep 19, 2014