Measurement of the Sensitivity Function in a Time-Domain Atomic Interferometer

Univ. of Mainz, Mainz
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (Impact Factor: 1.79). 07/2008; 57(6):1141 - 1148. DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2007.915148
Source: arXiv


We present here an analysis of the sensitivity of a time-domain atomic interferometer to the phase noise of the lasers used to manipulate the atomic wave packets. The sensitivity function is calculated in the case of a three-pulse Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which is the configuration of the two inertial sensors we are building at the Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais-Systeme de References Temps-Espace. We successfully compare this calculation to experimental measurements. The sensitivity of the interferometer is limited by the phase noise of the lasers as well as by residual vibrations. We evaluate the performance that could be obtained with state-of-the-art quartz oscillators, as well as the impact of the residual phase noise of the phase-locked loop. Requirements on the level of vibrations are derived from the same formalism.

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Available from: Patrick Cheinet, Apr 11, 2013
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    • "The first was devoted to check the g(t) shape and the second to test the consistency between the calculated Dick effect contribution and our clock frequency instability measurements. The sensitivity function g(t) has been measured, as in [22], by applying a 157 mrad phase step generated at different times t by the computer-controlled DDS. g(t) is deduced from the signal difference with and without phase step as a function of t. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Dick effect can be a limitation of the achievable frequency stability of a passive atomic frequency standard when the ancillary frequency source is only periodically sampled. Here we analyze the Dick effect for a pulsed vapor cell clock using coherent population trapping (CPT). Due to its specific interrogation process without atomic preparation nor detection outside of the Ramsey pulses, it exhibits an original shape of the sensitivity function to phase noise of the oscillator. Numerical calculations using a three-level atom model are successfully compared with measurements; an approximate formula of the sensitivity function is given as an easy-to-use tool. A comparison of our CPT clock sensitivity to phase noise with a clock of the same duty cycle using a two-level system reveals a higher sensitivity in the CPT case. The influence of a free-evolution time variation and of a detection duration lengthening on this sensitivity is studied. Finally this study permitted to choose an adapted quartz oscillator and allowed an improvement of the clock fractional frequency stability at the level of 3.2x10-13 at 1s
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 06/2014; 61(4). DOI:10.1109/TUFFC.2014.2945 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    • "In this sketch perfect beam-splitting efficiency is assumed. these accelerations on the interferometer phase is determined by the sensitivity function which is dependent on the effective wave vector k, the pulse timings and the Rabifrequency of the two photon transition [62]. As long as these values are matched, environmental noise would lead to the same phase shifts for both species and thus vanish in the differential signal. "
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    ABSTRACT: The theory of general relativity describes macroscopic phenomena driven by the influence of gravity while quantum mechanics brilliantly accounts for microscopic effects. Despite their tremendous individual success, a complete unification of fundamental interactions is missing and remains one of the most challenging and important quests in modern theoretical physics. The STE-QUEST satellite mission, proposed as a medium-size mission within the Cosmic Vision program of the European Space Agency (ESA), aims for testing general relativity with high precision in two experiments by performing a measurement of the gravitational redshift of the Sun and the Moon by comparing terrestrial clocks, and by performing a test of the Universality of Free Fall of matter waves in the gravitational field of Earth comparing the trajectory of two Bose-Einstein condensates of Rb85 and Rb87. The two ultracold atom clouds are monitored very precisely thanks to techniques of atom interferometry. This allows to reach down to an uncertainty in the E\"otv\"os parameter of at least 2x10E-15. In this paper, we report about the results of the phase A mission study of the atom interferometer instrument covering the description of the main payload elements, the atomic source concept, and the systematic error sources.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 06/2014; 31(11):115010. DOI:10.1088/0264-9381/31/11/115010 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "This AIG had a sensitivity of 8 × 10−6°/s/Hz1/2 in the gravity direction and a sensitivity of 1 × 10−4°/s/Hz1/2 in the horizontal direction. To investigate the various noises which establish the sensitivity limitations of the demonstrated AIG, they analyzed the sensitivity function in the AIG and pointed out that the Raman phase and residual vibrations were the main noises of the AIG, and proposed methods to decrease these noises [39]. In 2009, they achieved a new Raman transition with a symmetric momentum-space splitting of four photon recoil momentum, and increased the area of the closed loop by a factor of two [40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the rapid development of modern physics, atomic gyroscopes have been demonstrated in recent years. There are two types of atomic gyroscope. The Atomic Interferometer Gyroscope (AIG), which utilizes the atomic interferometer to sense rotation, is an ultra-high precision gyroscope; and the Atomic Spin Gyroscope (ASG), which utilizes atomic spin to sense rotation, features high precision, compact size and the possibility to make a chip-scale one. Recent developments in the atomic gyroscope field have created new ways to obtain high precision gyroscopes which were previously unavailable with mechanical or optical gyroscopes, but there are still lots of problems that need to be overcome to meet the requirements of inertial navigation systems. This paper reviews the basic principles of AIG and ASG, introduces the recent progress in this area, focusing on discussing their technical difficulties for inertial navigation applications, and suggests methods for developing high performance atomic gyroscopes in the near future.
    Sensors 12/2012; 12(5):6331-46. DOI:10.3390/s120506331 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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