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The Responce of Adult Rat Sertoli Cells, Immortalized by a Temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40, to 1,2-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 3,4-dinitrotoluene, and cadmium

Cell Biology and Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.34). 01/2003; DOI:10.1023/A:1023359222963
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ABSTRACT Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/42548/1/10565_2004_Article_5127345.pdf

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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) causes injury to Sertoli cells and induces apoptosis in the surrounding germinal cells in male laboratory rats; however, the mechanism by which 1,3-DNB functions is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether 1,3-DNB induces apoptosis and which pathways are undertaken in TM4 cells. When cells were treated with 1,3-DNB, a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability was observed by tetrazolium dye assay and LDH assay. The reduced cell viability by 1,3-DNB treatment appeared to involve necrosis as well as apoptosis, based on staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining and Western blotting for PARP protein. 1,3-DNB treatment decreased total transcript and protein levels of the apoptosis inhibitory protein Bcl-2, and increased expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. In addition, using FACS analysis we detected G2/M phase cell cycle arrest by 1,3-DNB, concurrent with a remarkable increase in p21 expression and decrease in cdc2 expression. Interestingly, we found that the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was promoted by 1,3-DNB, furthermore, 1,3-DNB-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the JNK inhibitor, but not by ERK inhibitor or the p38 inhibitor. Together, our results suggest that 1,3-DNB induces apoptotic cell death and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, at least in part, via JNK signaling in TM4 mouse Sertoli cells.
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.
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Apr 17, 2013

D.R. Sorenson