Article

Solid-State Electrodes for Multichannel Multiplexed Intracortical Neuronal Recording

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (Impact Factor: 2.23). 03/1986; 33(2):230 - 241. DOI: 10.1109/TBME.1986.325895
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT Thin-film arrays of extracellular recording electrodes have been developed for use in studies of information processing in neural structures and eventual use in closed-loop control of neural prostheses. These probes consist of a silicon substrate which supports an array of thin-film conductors. The conductors are insulated above and below with deposited dielectrics. The electrode sites are defined by openings in the upper dielectric layer and are inlaid with gold to form low-impedance recording surfaces. The probes are typically 15 pim in thickness with shank widths as narrow as 20 ¿m. The probe fabrication process is compatible with the inclusion of signal processing circuitry directly on the probe substrate. A 12 channel on-chip signal processor design with per-channel gain of 100, bandwidth of 100 Hz-6 kHz, multiplexed output, and recording-site impedance check capability is described. The probes have adequate strength to penetrate the gerbil pia-arachnoid layer and have recorded single neuron activity of over 500 ¿V peak-to-peak from tip, side, and mid-carrier sites. Signal-to-noise ratios as high as 10:1 have been achieved. An equivalent circuit model for the conducting leads, the recording site, and the electrode-electrolyte interface is described. Development of biocompatible insulation and encapsulation materials for long-term implantation of active probes is underway.

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