Vorticity banding in rodlike virus suspensions

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    ABSTRACT: Different types of regular and irregular self-organized structures observed in deformation of colloid and polymer substances ("complex fluids") are discussed and classified. This review is focused on experimental evidence of structure formation and self-organization in shear flows, which have many similar features in systems of different types. For single-phase (uniform) polymer systems regular periodic surface structures are observed. Two main types of these structures are possible: small-scale regular screw-like periodic structures along the whole stream (usually called "shark-skin") and long-period smooth and distorted parts of a stream attributed as a "stick-slip" effect. The origin of surface irregularities of both types is elasticity of a liquid. In the limiting case of high enough Weissenberg numbers, medium loses fluidity and should be treated as a rubbery matter. The liquid-to-rubbery transition at high Weissenberg numbers is considered as the dominating mechanism of instability, leading in particular to the wall slip and rupture of a stream. Secondary flows ("vorticity") in deformation polymeric substances and complex fluids are also obliged to their elasticity and the observed Couette-Taylor-like cells, though being similar to well-known inertial secondary flows, are completely determined by elasticity of colloid and polymeric systems. In deformation of colloidal systems, suspensions and other dense concentrated heterophase materials, structure formation takes place at rest and the destroying of the structure happens as the yield stress. In opposite to this case, strong deformations can lead to the shear-induced structure formation and jamming. These effects are of general meaning for any complex fluids as well as for dense suspensions and granular media. Strong deformations also lead to separation of a stream into different parts (several "bands") with various properties of liquids in these parts. So, two principal effects common for any polymers and complex fluids can be pointed at as the physical origin of self-organization in shearing. This is elasticity of a liquid and a possibility of its existence in different phases or relaxation states, while in many cases elasticity of a fluid is considered as the most important provoking factor for transitions between different types of rheological behavior, e.g. the fluid-to-rubbery-like behavior at high deformation rates and the transition from the real laminar flow to wall slip.
    Advances in colloid and interface science 06/2010; 157(1-2):75-90. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study numerically shear banded flow in planar and curved Couette geometries. Our aim is to capture two recent observations in shear banding systems of roll cells stacked in the vorticity direction, associated with an undulation of the interface between the bands. Depending on the degree of cell curvature and on the material's constitutive properties, we find either (i) an instability of the interface between the bands driven by a jump in second normal stress across it or (ii) a bulk viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability in the high shear band driven by a large first normal stress within it. Both lead to roll cells and interfacial undulations but with a different signature in each case, thereby suggesting that the roll cells in each of the recent experiments are different in origin.
    Physical Review Letters 05/2010; 104(19):198303. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the thermal diffusion phenomena of a rodlike mutant filamentous fd-Y21M virus in the isotropic phase by means of an improved infrared thermal-diffusion-forced Rayleigh scattering (IR-TDFRS) setup optimized for measurements of slowly diffusing systems. Because this is the first thermal diffusion study of a stiff anisotropic solute, we investigate the influence of the shape anisotropy on the thermal diffusion behavior. The influence of temperature, fd-Y21M concentration, and ionic strength in relation with the thermodiffusion properties is discussed. We characterize and eliminate the effect of these parameters on the absolute diffusion of the rods and show that diffusion determines the behavior of the Soret coefficient because the thermal diffusion coefficient is constant in the investigated regime. Our results indicate that for the thermal diffusion behavior structural changes of the surrounding water are more important than structural changes between the charged macroions. In the investigated temperature and concentration range, the fd-Y21M virus is thermophobic for the low salt content, whereas the solutions with the high salt content change from thermophobic to thermophilic behavior with decreasing temperature. A comparison with recent measurements of other charged soft and biological matter systems shows that the shape anisotropy of the fd-virus becomes not visible in the results.
    Biomacromolecules 03/2011; 12(5):1602-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor