Output Power PDF of a Saturated Semiconductor Optical Amplifier: Second-Order Noise Contributions by Path Integral Method

Tech. Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (Impact Factor: 1.89). 01/2008; 43(12):1188 - 1197. DOI: 10.1109/JQE.2007.906226
Source: IEEE Xplore


We have developed a second-order small-signal model for describing the nonlinear redistribution of noise in a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper, the details of the model are presented. A numerical example is used to compare the model to statistical simulations. We show that the proper inclusion of second-order noise terms is required for describing the change in the skewness (third-order moment) of the noise distributions. The calculated probability density functions are described far out in the tails and can hence describe signals with very low bit error rate (BER). The work is relevant for describing the noise distribution and BER in, for example, optical regeneration.

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Available from: B. Tromborg, May 21, 2015
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    • "An exact analysis encompassing all the physical mechanisms does not exist. In a recent study, Ohman and Mork apply second-order regular perturbation theory and path integrals to derive analytical expressions for the received signal probability density function (PDF) when the link is composed of a continuous-wave (CW) laser, an SOA, an ideal photodetector, and an arbitrary electrical filter [16]. The carrier-independent loss and the ASE generated inside the SOA are included, and the SOA operates in saturation. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present a simulation tool based on the Multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) method to characterize the statistical properties of bit patterning in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). Our tool estimates the conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of marks and spaces of the received signal. We introduce an experimental technique to directly measure the conditional PDFs of the received marks and spaces using a high bandwidth sampling scope. We demonstrate that predictions from our simulation tool match the experimental data. We measure the bit error rate (BER) of a SOA-based preamplified receiver, where the SOA operates in the nonlinear regime, and demonstrate that our simulation tool can predict the measured BER.
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 05/2010; 46(4-46):570 - 578. DOI:10.1109/JQE.2009.2029545 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Fluctuations due to spontaneous emission noise and charge carrier noise are potential sources for disturbances of the injected signal; see [10] for a recent detailed treatment. The relative intensity noise (RIN) spectrum can, e.g., be of importance in applications such as phase-arrayed devices. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulation of the input field can be calculated. Both responses and noise spectra are given through semianalytical expressions taking into account the longitudinal extent and finite end-facet reflectivities of the active device. Different examples of responses and spectra are presented for semiconductor optical amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light.
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 09/2009; 45(8-45):950 - 963. DOI:10.1109/JQE.2009.2014690 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    • "However, it does not provide the indispensable knowledge of the PDF of the output intensity for a complete statistical analysis. In [21], a PDF is obtained when the source is coherent using perturbation theory; the ASE field added to the coherent signal is treated as a perturbation. Analytical expressions for the PDF are derived using path-integral methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present a thorough numerical study of intensity noise mitigation of spectrum sliced wavelength-division multi-plexing (SS-WDM) systems employing a nonlinear semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) before the modulator. Our simulator of the SS-WDM link, embedded inside a Multicanonical Monte Carlo (MMC) platform, estimates the tails of the probability density functions of the received signals down to probabilities smaller than 10 16 . We introduce a new, simple, and efficient technique to handle intersymbol interference (ISI) in MMC simulations. We address the impact of optical postfiltering on SOA noise sup-pression performance. While previous research experimentally observed the SOA-induced noise cleaning in SS-WDM systems, this is the first complete simulator able to correctly predict the ensuing BER improvement. We measure the BER at different bit-rates and validate predicted BERs with and without post filtering.
    Journal of Lightwave Technology 07/2009; 27(15). DOI:10.1109/JLT.2009.2014787 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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