Article

Whole-stream metabolism in two montane streams: Contribution of the hyporheic zone

Limnology and Oceanography (Impact Factor: 3.62). 01/2001; 46(3). DOI: 10.4319/lo.2001.46.3.0523
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT We used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of metabolism and determine the contribution of the hyporheic zone to ecosystem respiration (R) in two streams with differing surface–subsurface exchange characteristics, Rio Calaveras and Gallina Creek, New Mexico. We used the difference between whole-stream and benthic R to calculate the rate of hyporheic zone R and coupled this estimate to an independent measure of hyporheic sediment R to estimate the cross-sectional area of the hyporheic zone (AH) for two reaches from each stream. Conservative tracer injections and solute transport modeling were used to characterize surface–subsurface hydrologic exchange by determining values of the cross-sectional area of the transient storage zone (As). The hyporheic zone contributed a substantial proportion of whole-stream R in all four study reaches, ranging from 40 to 93%. Wholestream R, hyporheic R, and percent contribution of hyporheic R all increased as transient storage increased, with whole-stream and hyporheic R exhibiting significant relationships with As. All three measures of respiration and values of AH were much greater for both reaches of the stream with greater surface–subsurface exchange. AH is valuable for cross-site comparisons because it accounts for differences in rates of both benthic and hyporheic sediment R and can be used to predict the importance of the hyporheic zone to other stream ecosystem processes. Yes Yes

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Clifford N Dahm, Jun 30, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
126 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: River regulation and altered land use are two common anthropogenic disturbances in rivers worldwide. Alteration of the stream bed, through processes such as siltation, or of hydrology through river regulation, are likely to modify hyporheic processes or clog interstitial space and thereby affect both hyporheic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics.We tested the separate and combined effects of increased flow and increased fine sediment on hyporheic water quality and invertebrates in flume mesocosms. Each mesocosm contained two bed sediment types: clean sediment in the upstream section and experimentally colmated (EC) sediment (10% by weight of fine sediment) in the downstream section. Two flow rates were established, a higher flow rate to create turbulent flow in six mesocosms and a lower flow rate to create a transitional flow between turbulent and laminar flows in the remaining six mesocosms. Invertebrates and physicochemistry were sampled after 30 days at three depths (5, 11 and 18 cm), and the flows in six of twelve mesocosms were switched. The experiment was concluded after sampling invertebrates and physicochemistry on day 70.The addition of fine sediment to the mesocosm bed generally increased ammonium and decreased nitrate and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations, decreased oxygen penetration and altered invertebrate assemblage structure. Increased flow rates generally lowered ammonium concentrations, increased soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations, increased oxygen penetration and altered invertebrate assemblage structure. Our hypothesis that higher flows would ameliorate any effects of added fine sediment was generally supported for oxygen penetration and nitrate concentration. However, we observed no differences in interaction effects of flow regime and sediment type either on other nutrient concentrations or invertebrate assemblage structure.The rates of flow used in our mesocosms did not appear to reach the threshold required to remove fine sediment. It is generally recognised that river hyporheic restoration requires a set of objectives against which the outcomes can be measured yet this is often overlooked. Our research provides preliminary guidelines that small amounts of fine sediment can have deleterious ecological effects. However, further research is required to evaluate whether lower percentages of bed fine sediment result in ecological impairment and to determine what flow rates are required to ameliorate colmation impacts.
    Freshwater Biology 04/2015; 60(4). DOI:10.1111/fwb.12536 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hyporheic zone and the streambed host a great part of the energy and material fluxes through river ecosystems. However, the role of heterogeneities in the hyporheic zone in metabolism is not clearly understood. This paper proposes a new way to approach the question by using a coupled subsurface-flow and metabolism model for investigating the role of heterogeneities in the hyporheic metabolism. Our results show that (i) our coupled model is feasible for investigating solute fluxes in the hyporheic zone under heterogeneous set-ups, and (ii) the incorporation of heterogeneities seems be of relevance for hyporheic metabolism estimations
    EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for energy efficiency, Oldenburg, Germany; 09/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biogeochemical cycling within river ecosystems is strongly influenced by geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics. To scale point observations of temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) to a hydrologically complex and dynamic three-dimensional river-floodplain-aquifer system, we integrated empirical models of temperature and biotic oxygen utilization with a recently published hydrogeomorphic model. The hydrogeomorphic model simulates channel flow, floodplain inundation, and surface-subsurface water exchange on the 16 km2 Nyack Floodplain, Middle Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA. Model results were compared to observed data sets of DO to test the hypothesis that complexity in spatiotemporal patterns of biogeochemistry emerges from a comparatively simple representation of biogeochemical processes operating within a multidimensional hydrologic system. The model explained 58% of the variance in 820 DO measurements that spanned the study site longitudinally, laterally, vertically, and across river discharge conditions and seasons. We also used model results to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of temperature and DO dynamics within the shallow alluvial aquifer, which is an extensive hyporheic zone because subsurface alluvial flow paths are recharged primarily by channel water. Our results underscore the importance of geomorphic, hydrologic, and temperature dynamics in driving river ecosystem processes, and they demonstrate how a realistic representation of a river's physical template, combined with simple biogeochemical models, can explain complex patterns of solute availability.
    12/2012; 117(G4). DOI:10.1029/2012JG002025