Vital signs: Walking among adults - United States, 2005 and 2010
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 08/2012; 61(31):595-601.
Background: Physical activity has numerous health benefits, including improving weight management. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., brisk walking) for substantial health benefits. Walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by U.S. adults. Methods: CDC used data from the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys to assess changes in prevalence of walking (defined as walking for transportation or leisure in at least one bout of 10 minutes or more in the preceding 7 days) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, walking assistance status, region, and physician-diagnosed chronic disease. CDC also assessed the association between walking and meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline. Results: Overall, walking prevalence increased significantly from 55.7% in 2005 to 62.0% in 2010. Significantly higher walking prevalence was observed in most demographic and health characteristic categories examined. In 2010, the adjusted odds ratio of meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline among walkers, compared with non-walkers, was 2.95 (95% confidence interval = 2.73-3.19). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: To sustain increases in the prevalence of walking, communities can implement evidence-based strategies such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, or using design and land use policies and practices that emphasize mixed-use communities and pedestrian-friendly streets. The impact of these strategies on both walking and physical activity should be monitored systematically at the national, state, and local levels. Public health efforts to promote walking as a way to meet physical activity guidelines can help improve the health of U.S. residents.
Available from: Jeremy M Jacobs
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Rising health care use among older people presents a challenge to medical care. Physical activity (PA) is beneficial; however, it is unknown if initiating PA among the very old reduces health service use. We examined the effects of changing PA levels on emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization at ages 78 and 85.
A representative sample (born 1920-1921) from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) were assessed at ages 78 and 85 for self-reported PA; ER visits and hospitalization; and social, functional, and medical domains.
We examined 896 and 1173 subjects at ages 78 and 85, respectively. ER usage at ages 78 and 85 respectively was lower among active subjects (15.8% vs 37.4%, P < .0001; 30.6% vs 50.8%, P < .0001), as was hospitalization (10.5% vs 16.7%, P < .05; 22.1% vs 37.8%, P < .0001). We adjusted for gender, education, loneliness, functional dependence, cognitive impairment, depression, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, neoplasm, renal disease, self-rated health, body mass index, and smoking. PA at age 78 was associated with a reduced likelihood of ER visits (odds ratio [OR] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.89), but not hospitalization (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.54-2.42); at age 85 with a reduced likelihood for ER visits (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99) and hospitalization (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98). Compared with subjects consistently active at ages 78 and 85, initiating PA between ages 78 and 85 resulted in similar lower likelihood of ER visits (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.23-1.56) and hospitalization (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.48-3.02); stopping PA and never being active between 78 and 85 were respectively associated with increased ER visits (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.88; OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.04-4.57) and hospitalization (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.23; OR 2.01, 95% CI 0.92-4.4).
Among the oldest old, not only continuing but also becoming physically active is associated with reduced health service use. Initiating PA among the very old should be encouraged.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 12/2012; 14(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2012.10.023 · 4.94 Impact Factor
Available from: Karen Croteau
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if using physical activity (PA) mentors has any additional impact on daily steps of older adults participating in the Maine in Motion (MIM) program in the primary care setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a MIM only group (n=14) or a MIM+ mentor group (n=14). The Maine in Motion (MIM) intervention lasted 6 months with follow-up at 12 months. Average age of participants was 64±8.8 years and most participants had multiple chronic illnesses. At baseline, mean body mass index (BMI) was 32.2±5.1 and average daily steps were 4236±2266. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for steps, F(2.324,59.104)=4.168, p=0.015, but no main effects for group, F(1,25)=2.988, p=0.096 nor time by group interaction F(2.324,59.104)= 0.905, p=0.151. All participants significantly increased daily steps over the course of the intervention, with MIM+ participants maintaining increases at follow-up. No significant findings were found for BMI.
Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 01/2013; 22(1). DOI:10.1123/JAPA.2012-0120 · 1.97 Impact Factor
Available from: Janet S Hildebrand
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic evidence supports an inverse association between physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer. Whether associations exist for moderate activities, such as walking, and whether associations differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), adult weight gain, or use of postmenopausal hormones (PMH) is unclear. The relation between time spent sitting and breast cancer also is unclear. Among 73,615 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, 4,760 women were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2009. Extended Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of breast cancer in relation to total recreational physical activity, walking, and leisure-time sitting. Differences in associations by ER status, BMI, weight gain, and PMH use were also evaluated. The most active women (those reporting >42 MET-hours/week physical activity) experienced 25% lower risk of breast cancer than the least active [0-<7 MET-hours/week; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.89; Ptrend = 0.01]. Forty-seven percent of women reported walking as their only recreational activity; among these women, a 14% lower risk was observed for ≥7 hours/week relative to ≤3 hours/week of walking (95% CI, 0.75-0.98). Associations did not differ by ER status, BMI, weight gain, or PMH use. Sitting time was not associated with risk. These results support an inverse association between physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer that does not differ by ER status, BMI, weight gain, or PMH use. The finding of a lower risk associated with ≥7 hours/week of walking may be of public health interest. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(10); 1906-12. ©2013 AACR.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 10/2013; 22(10):1906-1912. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0407 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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