Patterns of pain-free response in 497 cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia treated with Gamma Knife surgery and followed up for least 1 year.
Journal of neurosurgery 12/2012; 117:181-188.
The goal of this study was to establish whether clear patterns of initial pain freedom could be identified when treating patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The authors compared hypesthesia and pain recurrence rates to see if statistically significant differences could be found. Between July 1992 and November 2010, 737 patients presenting with TN underwent GKS and prospective evaluation at Timone University Hospital in Marseille, France. In this study the authors analyzed the cases of 497 of these patients, who participated in follow-up longer than 1 year, did not have megadolichobasilar artery- or multiple sclerosis-related TN, and underwent GKS only once; in other words, the focus was on cases of classic TN with a single radiosurgical treatment. Radiosurgery was performed with a Leksell Gamma Knife (model B, C, or Perfexion) using both MR and CT imaging targeting. A single 4-mm isocenter was positioned in the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve at a median distance of 7.8 mm (range 4.5-14 mm) anterior to the emergence of the nerve. A median maximum dose of 85 Gy (range 70-90 Gy) was delivered. Using empirical methods and assisted by a chart with clear cut-off periods of pain free distribution, the authors were able to divide patients who experienced freedom from pain into 3 separate groups: patients who became pain free within the first 48 hours post-GKS; those who became pain free between 48 hours and 30 days post-GKS; and those who became pain free more than 30 days after GKS. The median age in the 497 patients was 68.3 years (range 28.1-93.2 years). The median follow-up period was 43.75 months (range 12-174.41 months). Four hundred fifty-four patients (91.34%) were initially pain free within a median time of 10 days (range 1-459 days) after GKS. One hundred sixty-nine patients (37.2%) became pain free within the first 48 hours (Group PF(≤ 48 hours)), 194 patients (42.8%) between posttreatment Day 3 and Day 30 (Group PF((>48 hours, ≤ 30 days))), and 91 patients (20%) after 30 days post-GKS (Group PF(>30 days)). Differences in postoperative hypesthesia were found: in Group PF(≤ 48 hours) 18 patients (13.7%) developed postoperative hypesthesia, compared with 30 patients (19%) in Group PF((>48 hours, ≤ 30 days)) and 22 patients (30.6%) in Group PF(>30 days) (p = 0.014). One hundred fifty-seven patients (34.4%) who initially became free from pain experienced a recurrence of pain with a median delay of 24 months (range 0.62-150.06 months). There were no statistically significant differences between the patient groups with respect to pain recurrence: 66 patients (39%) in Group PF(≤ 48 hours) experienced pain recurrence, compared with 71 patients (36.6%) in Group PF((>48 hours, ≤ 30 days)) and 27 patients (29.7%) in Group PF(>30 days) (p = 0.515). A substantial number of patients (169 cases, 37.2%) became pain free within the first 48 hours. The rate of hypesthesia was higher in patients who became pain free more than 30 days after GKS, with a statistically significant difference between patient groups (p = 0.014).
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ABSTRACT: To report outcomes of patients with medical and/or surgical refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GK SRS). One hundred and forty-nine patients with 152 cases of TN treated with GK SRS were analyzed. All patients, except one, received a dose of 40Gy to the 50% isodose volume. The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity score was used to grade pain. Actuarial rates of pain relief were calculated. Multiple factors were analyzed for association with pain relief. The median follow up was 27 months (4-71 months). Overall 92% of cases achieved a BNI score I-III after GK SRS. Of those who had pain relief after GK SRS, 32% developed pain recurrence defined as a BNI score of IV or V. The actuarial rate of freedom from pain recurrence (BNI scores I-III) of all treated cases at 1, 2 and 3-years was 76%, 69% and 60%, respectively. On univariate analysis age ≥70 was predictive of better pain relief (p=0.046). Type of pain, prior surgery, multiple sclerosis, number of isocenters, treated nerve length, volume and thickness and distance from the root entry zone to the isocenter were not significant for maintaining a BNI score of I-III. Those who achieved a BNI score of I or II were more likely to maintain pain relief compared to those who only achieved a BNI score of III (93% vs 38% at three years, p<0.01). The rate of pain relief of twenty-seven patients who underwent repeat GK SRS was 70% and 62% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Toxicity after first GK SRS was minimal with 25% of cases experiencing only new or worsening post-treatment numbness. GK SRS provides acceptable pain relief with limited morbidity in patients with medical and/or surgical refractory TN.Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 02/2014; 117C:107-111. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.12.003 · 1.13 Impact Factor
Article: Gamma Knife for Functional DiseasesJournal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 06/2014; 11(3). DOI:10.1007/s13311-014-0276-z · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to megadolichobasilar artery (MBA) compression is considerably difficult to manage surgically. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the safety/efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in this special group of patients. Methods: Between July 1992 and November 2010, 29 patients with >1 year of follow-up presenting with MBA compression were treated with GKS at Timone University Hospital. Radiosurgery was performed using a Gamma Knife (model B, C or Perfexion). A single 4-mm isocenter was positioned in the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve at a median distance of 9.1 mm (range: 6-18.2 mm) from the emergence. Results: The median follow-up period was 46.1 months (range: 12.9-157.9 months). Initially, all patients (100%) were pain free; the average time to complete pain relief was 13.5 days (range: 0-240 days). Their actuarial probability of remaining pain free without medication at 0.5, 1 and 2 years was 93.1, 79.3 and 75.7%, respectively, and remained stable until 13 years after treatment. The actuarial probability of hypoesthesia onset at 6 months was 4.3%; at 1 year it reached 13% and remained stable until 13 years after treatment. Conclusions: GKS proved to be reasonably safe and effective on a long-term basis as a first- and/or second-line surgical treatment for TN due to MBA compression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 06/2014; 92(3):170-177. DOI:10.1159/000362172 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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