Apolipoprotein A-I and platelet factor 4 are biomarkers for Infliximab response in rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The use of biologics such as infliximab has dramatically improved the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, factors predictive of therapeutic response need to be identified. A proteomic study was performed prior to infliximab therapy to identify a panel of candidate protein biomarkers of RA predictive of treatment response. METHODS: Plasma profiles of 60 RA patients (28 non-responders ACR 20 negative and 32 responders ACR 70 positive to infliximab) were studied by SELDI-TOF-MS technology on two types of arrays, an anion exchange array (SAX2) and a nickel affinity array (IMAC3-Ni). Biomarker characterization was carried out using classical biochemical methods (purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation or metal affinity chromatography) and identification by MALDI-TOF analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct protein profiles were observed on both arrays and several proteins were differentially expressed in both patient populations. Five proteins at 3.86, 7.77, 7.97, 8.14 and 74.07 kDa were overexpressed in the non-responder group, whereas one at 28 kDa was increased in the responder population (sensitivity > 56%, specificity > 77.5%). Moreover combination of several biomarkers improved both the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of patient response to over 97%. The 28 kDa protein was characterized as apolipoprotein A-I and the 7.77 kDa biomarker was identified as platelet factor 4. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized six plasma biomarkers, enabling the detection of patient response to infliximab with high sensitivity and specificity. Apolipoprotein A-1 was predictive of a good response to infliximab, whereas platelet factor 4 was associated with non-responders.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a 3-stage ATM switch architecture that uses optical WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) grouped links and dynamic bandwidth sharing. The proposed architecture has two features. The first is the use of WDM technology which makes the number of cables used in the system proportional to system size. The second is the use of dynamic bandwidth sharing among WDM grouped links. This prevents the statistical multiplexing gain offered by WDM from falling even if the switching system becomes large. A performance evaluation confirms the scaleability and cost-effectiveness of the proposed architectureCommunications, 1999. ICC '99. 1999 IEEE International Conference on; 02/1999
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Customer service management (CSM) offers a management interface between customers and a service provider, which enables the customers to individually monitor and control their subscribed service. Introducing CSM in the service provider's environment includes communicating and interacting with its service management. Considering the complexity of service management, the goal of this paper is to logically separate CSM and service management, from an enterprise point of view, by identifying specific CSM roles which describe the functions of service management that are relevant for CSM. By using the concepts of roles and associations, we abstract from the details of the underlying service management and identify the requirements that have to be met by the service management. The specific CSM roles and associations are formalized using the terms and concepts of the ODP (open distributed processing) enterprise viewpoint specification in order to ensure that the resulting specification can be applied to a wide range of scenarios. The instantiation of the proposed approach within a real-life scenario shows the applicability and the benefits of our approachEnterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, 1999. EDOC '99. Proceedings. Third International; 02/1999
Conference Paper: Improvement in lateral IGBT design for 500 V 3 A one chip inverter ICs[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper reports, for the first time, the development of 500 V, 3 A single chip inverter ICs. The chip size of the IC is 7.1×5.2 mm<sup>2</sup>, which is only 30% larger than that of 500 A, 1 A inverter ICs. The chip size reduction has been realized by 35% improvement in lateral IGBT on-resistance and an optimized layout of LIGBT unit cells and bonding padsPower Semiconductor Devices and ICs, 1999. ISPSD '99. Proceedings., The 11th International Symposium on; 02/1999