Article

El desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos: investigaciones transculturales

Estudios de psicología, ISSN 0210-9395, Nº 9, 1982, pags. 50-70 01/1982;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Mario Carretero reviews the last ten years� research work on cognitive process development from a transcultural perspective. He also delimits himself to the main investigation approaches and the most relevant methodological contributions. Among those, the author focuses on the ecological/differential tendency, reviewing as well some Piagetian contributions and the main ethnographic approach principles. The author presents a general view on transcultural investigations into perceptual development and the field independence/dependence, insisting on the ecological model and on the existing relation between some socialization practices and the above mentioned cognitive style development. To conclude, it is stressed that some common traits between different tendencies are appearing and that the most discussed methodological aspect is the one referred to which of both views, the cognitive or the correlational one, is the most adequate. Finally, he mentions the cognitive universals, maintaining that universal cognitive products almost do not exist but common processes to all cultures do, and the Evolutive Psychology supports an interactionistic approach to development. Mario Carretero revisa las investigaciones de los últimos diez años que han estudiado el desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos desde una perspectiva transcultural. También delimita los principales enfoques de investigación y las aportaciones metodológicas más pertinentes. Entre estos enfoques el autor se centra fundamentalmente en la tendencia ecológico-diferencialista, repasando también algunas investigaciones piagetianas y los principales fundamentos del enfoque etnográfico. El autor presenta una panorámica general de las investigaciones transculturales sobre el desarrollo de la percepción y la dependencia-independencia de campo, haciendo hincapié en el modelo ecológico y en la relación existente entre determinadas prácticas socializadoras y el desarrollo del citado estilo cognitivo. En las conclusiones se destaca que están apareciendo algunos rasgos comunes entre las distintas tendencias y que el aspecto metodológico más discutido es el que se refiere a cuál de los dos enfoques, experimental o correlacional, es el más adecuado. Por último alude a los universales cognitivos, sosteniendo que apenas existen productos cognitivos universales pero sí muchos procesos comunes a todas las culturas y que la psicología evolutiva transcultural está apoyando la concepción interaccionista del desarrollo.

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