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Desarrollo de las habilidades de reconocimiento de palabras en niños con distinta competencia lectora

Cognitiva, ISSN 0214-3550, Vol. 4, Nº 2, 1992, pags. 193-208
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT En este trabajo se intenta comprobar si el modelo dual de lectura, postulado para los idiomas opacos, es aplicable a un sistema transparente como el castellano, y si es así, cual de los dos procedimientos de lectura (léxico y fonológico) es el responsable de las diferencias entre buenos y malos lectores y entre los principiantes y los maduros. Para ello se realizo un experimento de decisión léxica con 40 niños de distintos niveles de E. G. B. Clasificados como buenos y malos lectores. El comportamiento de las variables lexicalidad, frecuencia y longitud apunta a la utilización del modelo de doble ruta. Por otra parte, la causa de las dificultades de los malos lectores parece situarse en el procedimiento de descomposición grafémico- fonológico.

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    • "Veamos uno por uno estos estudios. Domínguez y Cuetos (1992) evaluaron este efecto con cuarenta niños españoles mediante una tarea de decisión léxica visual. Consideraron, al mismo tiempo, otras variables como grado escolar (grados 2.°, 3.°, 5.° y 8.°), nivel lector (buen nivel lector/mal nivel lector), frecuencia léxica (frecuencia léxica alta/frecuencia léxica baja, según diccionario Juilland & Chang, 1964 2 ) y longitud de las palabras (palabras cortas, de 1 o 2 sílabas/palabras largas, de 3 o 4 sílabas). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research project was to analyze lexical processing aspects in 180 second to fifth-grade students (25 per class). Specifically, it analyzed what they do when reading existing words versus nonexistent words (pseudowords), that is, what students do when reading signs with both signifier and signified, and what they do when they only have available phonological and orthographic information regarding a series of letters. It is important to bear in mind that when children start their schooling process, many written words seem to be pseudowords for them. An experiment was carried out with a lexical decision task, and the findings showed that the lexicality effect was present all grades from second to fifth and that the older participants read more rapidly and precisely.
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    • "However , when GPCR are incorrectly applied , there is no progress in reading and this might be the real situation for the low phonological skill group . As it has been suggested , children may use , from the very first moment of systematic reading acquisition , the direct route in lexical access ; supporting evidence comes from studies that show that frequent words are much better read than infrequent ones , and from studies were children read words more easily than pseudowords , showing the lexical category effect ( Defior , Justicia , & Martos , 1998 ; Domínguez & Cuetos , 1992 ) . This is our participants ' situation . "
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    ABSTRACT: Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 11/2010; 13(2):538-56. DOI:10.1017/S1138741600002237 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    • "The whole word is a unit that can also be included in a remedial instructional program for RD children. In Spanish, there is empirical evidence that the children use orthographic and phonemic cues in printed word recognition (Defior, Justicia, & Martos, 1996; Domínguez & Cuetos, 1992; Jiménez & Hernández-Valle, 2000; Jiménez & Rodrigo, 1994; Valle-Arroyo, 1989). In order to assess these reading strategies, psycholinguistic parameters such as familiarity, length, and syllabic structure have traditionally been used but neither regularity nor homophony effects can be studied with Spanish subjects, given the regular nature of grapheme phoneme correspondences. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effects of four reading-training procedures for children with reading disabilities (RD) in a transparent orthography, with the aim of examining the effects of different spelling-to-sound units in computer speech-based reading. We selected a sample of 83 Spanish children aged between 7 years 1 month and 10 years 6 months (M = 105.2, SD = 7.8) whose pseudoword reading performance was below the 25th percentile and IQ > 90. The participants were randomly assigned to five groups: (a) the whole-word training group (WW) (n = 17), (b) the syllable training group (S)(n = 16), (c) the onset-rime training group (OR) (n = 17), (d) the phoneme training group (P) (n = 15), and (e) the untrained control group (n = 18). Children were pre- and post-tested in word recognition, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and orthographic and phonological tasks. The results indicate that experimental groups who participated in the phoneme and syllable conditions improved their word recognition in comparison with the control group. In addition, dyslexics who participated in the phoneme, syllable, and onset-rime conditions made a greater number of requests during computer-based word reading under conditions that required extensive phonological computation (low frequency words and long words). Reading time, however, was greater for long words in the phoneme group during computer-based reading. These results suggest the importance of training phonological processes in improving word decoding in children with dyslexia who learn in a consistent orthography.
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