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Crítica a la visión dominante de salud-enfermedad desde la psicología social de la salud: patologización preventiva de la vida cotidiana

Boletín de psicología, ISSN 0212-8179, Nº. 94, 2008, pags. 85-104 01/2008;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT La conceptualización de la salud como un estado armónico individual y colectivo de completo bienestar físico, psicológico, mental y social a través de la Declaración de Alma Ata (1978) asentó las bases sobre la categoría de la salud como un derecho humano y una responsabilidad individual, sociocomunitaria e institucional. Pasadas tres décadas, a pesar de esas buenas intenciones, en la sociedad contemporánea se asiste a un proceso de profesionalización inhabilitante de la vida cotidiana y, por lo que respec-ta a la salud, a lo que se calificará en esta aportación como patologización preventiva, que consiste en el resultado de las contradicciones entre el desideratum de alcanzar un estado holístico de salud y la potenciación de una sociedad farmacologizada y con nuevas patologías y adicciones varias. En este estudio se analizan las principales conceptualizaciones del falso binomio salud-enfermedad y se ofrece un análisis crítico de la visión dominante, otorgándole un renovado valor a la consecución de un estado de salud comunitaria. En virtud de ello, se abunda en la necesidad de repensar los significados socioconstruidos de la salud y de la enfermedad y prevenir que la tendencia a la medicalización de la salud derive en una extensión innecesaria de lo patológico.

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