La evaluación del rendimiento académico según los criterios de los profesores y la autopercepción de los alumnos

Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios Educativos 01/2004; 34(2):9-27.
Source: OAI


THE EVALUATION OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ACCORDING TO THE CRITERIA OF TEACHERS AND SELF-PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENTS. The objective of this study was to compare students’ perceptions with their teachers’ judgments of their academic performance. Participants were 474 Argentinean secondary students, attending public and private schools, and their Math and Social Sciences teachers. Each student was placed in one of two groups depending whether their academic performance was high or low (251 and 223 respectively), in function of their teachers assessment. Content analysis indicated similarities and differences in teachers’ judgments which were consistent with the subjects they teach. In their definition of high academic performance, math teachers placed the greatest weight on ability to solving problems, while social sciences teachers on positive school attitudes. Multidimensional analysis revealed that high achievers viewed themselves as motivated, and academically competent, thus reflecting positive academic selfconcepts and correspondence with teachers’ criteria. On the other hand, students with poor academic performance showed stronger discrepancies with teachers’ judgments. The implications of these findings for educational practices are considered.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la autopercepción de los alumnos en cuanto a su rendimiento académico con los juicios valorativos de sus profesores. Participaron 474 estudiantes secundarios, asistentes a escuelas públicas y privadas de Argentina, y sus respectivos profesores de matemática y ciencias sociales. Cada alumno fue asignado a uno de dos grupos (251 “buenos” y 223 “malos” alumnos), en función del rendimiento adscrito por sus docentes. Un análisis de contenido de los criterios empleados por los docentes para la evaluación del rendimiento académico mostró tanto similitudes como discrepancias en función de su especialidad disciplinar. En su definición del buen rendimiento, los docentes de matemática resaltaron la importancia del empleo de estrategias adecuadas para resolver problemas, mientras que los docentes de ciencias sociales destacaron las actitudes positivas hacia la escuela. Un análisis multidimensional reveló que los alumnos con buen rendimiento se perciben como académicamente competentes y motivados para aprender, lo que refleja un positivo autoconcepto académico, en sintonía con los criterios valorativos de sus docentes, a diferencia de los alumnos con rendimientos deficientes, quienes mostraron mayores discrepancias con los juicios de sus docentes. Se consideran tales hallazgos a la luz de sus implicaciones para las prácticas educacionales.

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