Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Clostridium perfringens spores are very resistant to chlorine and other drinking-water disinfectants. Clostridium perfringens spores have been suggested as a surrogate indicator of disinfectant activity against Cryptosporidium parvum and other hardy pathogens in water. In this study, an alternative disinfectant system consisting of an electrochemically produced mixed-oxidant solution (MIOX; LATA Inc.) was evaluated for inactivation of both Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Clostridium perfringens spores. The disinfection efficacy of the mixed-oxidant solution was compared to that of free chlorine on the basis of equal weight per volume concentrations of total oxidants. Batch inactivation experiments were done on purified oocysts and spores in buffered, oxidant demand-free water at pH 7 an 25 degrees C by using a disinfectant dose of 5 mg/liter and contact times of up to 24 h. The mixed-oxidant solution was considerably more effective than free chlorine in activating both microorganisms. A 5-mg/liter dose of mixed oxidants produced a > 3-log10-unit (> 99.9%) inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Clostridium perfringens spores in 4 h. Free chlorine produce no measurable inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by 4 or 24 h, although Clostridium perfringens spores were inactivated by 1.4 log10 units after 4 h. The on-site generation of mixed oxidants may be a practical and cost-effective system of drinking water disinfection protecting against even the most resistant pathogens, including Cryptosporidium oocysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is known to occur widely in both source and drinking water and has caused waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. To improve monitoring, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed method 1622 for isolation and detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Method 1622 is performance based and involves filtration, concentration, immunomagnetic separation, fluorescent-antibody staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) counterstaining, and microscopic evaluation. The capsule filter system currently recommended for method 1622 was compared to a hollow-fiber ultrafilter system for primary concentration of C. parvum oocysts in seeded reagent water and untreated surface waters. Samples were otherwise processed according to method 1622. Rates of C. parvum oocyst recovery from seeded 10-liter volumes of reagent water in precision and recovery experiments with filter pairs were 42% (standard deviation [SD], 24%) and 46% (SD, 18%) for hollow-fiber ultrafilters and capsule filters, respectively. Mean oocyst recovery rates in experiments testing both filters on seeded surface water samples were 42% (SD, 27%) and 15% (SD, 12%) for hollow-fiber ultrafilters and capsule filters, respectively. Although C. parvum oocysts were recovered from surface waters by using the approved filter of method 1622, the recovery rates were significantly lower and more variable than those from reagent grade water. In contrast, the disposable hollow-fiber ultrafilter system was compatible with subsequent method 1622 processing steps, and it recovered C. parvum oocysts from seeded surface waters with significantly greater efficiency and reliability than the filter suggested for use in the version of method 1622 tested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are very resistant to conventional water treatment processes, including chemical disinfection, we determined the kinetics and extent of their inactivation by monochromatic, low-pressure (LP), mercury vapor lamp UV radiation and their subsequent potential for DNA repair of UV damage. A UV collimated-beam apparatus was used to expose suspensions of purified C. parvum oocysts in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.3, at 25 degrees C to various doses of monochromatic LP UV. C. parvum infectivity reductions were rapid, approximately first order, and at a dose of 3 mJ/cm(2) (=30 J/m(2)), the reduction reached the cell culture assay detection limit of approximately 3 log(10). At UV doses of 1.2 and 3 mJ/cm(2), the log(10) reductions of C. parvum oocyst infectivity were not significantly different for control oocysts and those exposed to dark or light repair conditions for UV-induced DNA damage. These results indicate that C. parvum oocysts are very sensitive to inactivation by low doses of monochromatic LP UV radiation and that there is no phenotypic evidence of either light or dark repair of UV-induced DNA damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP) and ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) for the identification of Clostridium perfringens was investigated. A liquid assay containing both MUP and ONPG was a highly specific alternative method for C. perfringens confirmation, reducing incubation time from 48 to only 4 h. The assay solution is easy to prepare, does not require anaerobic conditions for use, and has an extended shelf life.
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