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Características farmacológicas de las drogas recreativas (MDMA y otras anfetaminas, Ketamina, GHB, LSD y otros alucinógenos)

Adicciones: Revista de socidrogalcohol, ISSN 0214-4840, Vol. 15, Nº. 2, 2003, pags. 51-75
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT En este capítulo hacemos una revisión de las características farmacológicas de las principales drogas recreativas englobadas en 2 grupos: drogas de diseño y alucinógenos. Las drogas de diseño (término acuñado por G Henderson) comprenden: el grupo de los derivados de las feniletilaminas (derivados de anfetaminas) como el MDMA (éxtasis), el grupo de los opiáceos sean derivados del fentanilo o de la meperidina, el grupo de las arilhexilaminas como la fenciclidina (PCP), el grupo de los derivados de la metacualona y otras drogas de diseño con el gamma-hidroxi-butirato ¿GHB-, el extasis vegetal y otros. Por otra parte se revisan los principales alucinógenos, centrándonos en el LSD. El MDMA (3,4,-metilenodioximetanfetamina) es la droga de diseño más importante por su elevado consumo, posee acciones estimulantes y alucinógenas y puede producir neurotoxicidad. El GHB, la ketamina y una benzodiacepina como el flunitrazepam forman un grupo nuevo de drogas llamadas ¿drogas de violación por cita¿ ya que al ser depresores del sistema nervioso central y por sus propiedades incoloras, inodoras e insípidas producen efectos en la víctima de incapacidad para prevenir una agresión sexual. La LSD (dietilamida del ácido lisérgico) es la principal droga alucinógena y es una de las drogas con mayor potencia farmacológica.

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