Chemical control of anthracnose during pre and postharvest in mango, in Cedeño County, Monagas State, Venezuela Currently the most important pathologies of mango in Monagas State, Venezuela, are the spots on the foliage, flower and fruits caused by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz). It has been noted that the implementation of a spraying program containing fungicides, is the most viable practice to manage the disease, due to the fact that most of the farms are established with susceptible varieties. The experiment was conducted in farm located in the area of Tarragona, Cedeño county in Monagas State, on mango trees, cultivar Haden. The fungicides Antracol 70 PM, Curacarb 50 WP, and Captan 50 PM were used to conform the following four treatments: T1, application of Antracol eight days prior to floral induction; T2, same as T1 but including a spray of Curacarb when plants initiate blooming; T3, same as T2 plus an extra spray of Curacarb at the end of blooming; and T4, same as T3 plus a spray of Captan during fruit growth. The treatments were applied every 15 days. Additionally, a test was carried out to determine the effect of three fungicides for the control of anthracnose on harvested fruits. The fungicides were Benlate WP, Funcloraz 40 CE and Amistar Xtra. In both assays the control consisted in a treatment without fungicide applications. In the field test, the best results were found in T3 and T4 for the percentage of isolation of Colletotrichum gloesporioides, panicles with fruits, and commercial fruit yield per tree. The second test showed that the fungicides Funcloraz and Amistar achieved the best anthracnose control on harvested fruits. Additional key words: Colletotrichum gloesporioides, fungicides, postharvest management
"& Sacc.) is a pathogenic fungus that attacks mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) and causes a disease known as anthracnose, which occurs in fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. This pathogen is capable of destroying up to 60% of the fruit produced (Arias and Carrizales, 2007; Bally, 2006; León, 2007; Vega-Piña, 2006 ). Despite this problem, in 2010, Mexico was the fifth largest producer and the largest exporter of mangoes in the world with fruit exported primarily to the USA, Canada and Japan (FAO, 2012 ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast Meyerozyma caribbica was evaluated for their effectiveness against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. “Ataulfo” and to identify the possible mechanisms of action involved in the inhibition. M. caribbica showed a high antagonistic potential in vivo, with significant inhibition of 86.7% of anthracnose. M. caribbica competed for the nutrients sucrose and fructose (p < 0.05). Electron microscopy showed that the yeast produces a biofilm adhering to the fruit and to C. gloeosporioides hyphae. M. caribbica showed competition for space and parasitism to the phytopathogen, furthermore it produces hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinase, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-1, 3-glucanase. These enzymes caused notched and non-lethal deformations on the fungal hyphae through this specific action mechanism. According to the results obtained here, the combination of the different action mechanisms of the yeast increases their ability to control C. gloeosporioides. The use of biological agents to control C. gloeosporioides may contribute to the integrated management of disease caused by this pathogen.
Biological Control 06/2013; 65(3):293–301. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.03.010 · 1.64 Impact Factor
"Growth inhibition of C. gloeosporioides by B. cepacia XXVI Anthracnose, the main disease of world-wide mango production , has been controlled by several alternatives: (1) physical methods such as pruning, ultraviolet light, modified atmosphere, etc. (Stevens et al. 1997; Karabulut and Baykal 2004) and (2) chemical methods as fungicides, copper, ergosterol inhibitor, etc. (Ker 2001; Arias and Carrizales 2007). These alternatives present disadvantages mainly in regard to efficiency of disease control (physics methods) and environmental hazards (chemical methods) as well as high economical costs (de los Santos-Villalobos et al. 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the causal agent of anthracnose in mango. Burkholderia cepacia XXVI, isolated from mango rhizosphere and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as a member of B. cepacia complex, was more effective than 6 other mango rhizosphere bacteria in inhibiting the model mango pathogen, C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456. Biocontrol of this pathogen was demonstrated on Petri-dishes containing PDA by > 90 % reduction of surface colonization. The nature of the biocontrol metabolite(s) was characterized via a variety of tests. The inhibition was almost exclusively due to production of agar-diffusible, not volatile, metabolite(s). The diffusible metabolite(s) underwent thermal degradation at 70 and 121 °C (1 atm). Tests for indole acetic acid production and lytic enzyme activities (cellulase, glucanase and chitinase) by B. cepacia XXVI were negative, indicating that these metabolites were not involved in the biocontrol effect. Based on halo formation and growth inhibition of the pathogen on the diagnostic medium, CAS-agar, as well as colorimetric tests we surmised that strain XXVI produced a hydroxamate siderophore involved in the biocontrol effect observed. The minimal inhibitory concentration test showed that 0.64 μg ml(-1) of siderophore (Deferoxamine mesylate salt-equivalent) was sufficient to achieve 91.1 % inhibition of the pathogen growth on Petri-dishes containing PDA. The biocontrol capacity against C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456 correlated directly with the siderophore production by B. cepacia XXVI: the highest concentration of siderophore production in PDB on day 7, 1.7 μg ml(-1) (Deferoxamine mesylate salt-equivalent), promoted a pathogen growth inhibition of 94.9 %. The growth of 5 additional strains of C. gloeosporioides (isolated from mango "Ataulfo" orchards located in the municipality of Chahuites, State of Oaxaca in Mexico) was also inhibited when confronted with B. cepacia XXVI. Results indicate that B. cepacia XXVI or its siderophore have the potential to be used as a biological control agent against C. gloeosporioides; thus diminishing environmental problems caused by the current practices to control this disease.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 08/2012; 28(8):2615-23. DOI:10.1007/s11274-012-1071-9 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Se determinó el efecto de la aplicación de los extractos etanólicos (EE) de hojas de Azadirachta indica (�nim�); Phyllanthus niruri (�flor escondida�); Calotropis procera (�algodón de seda�); Lippia origanoides (�orégano silvestre�); Gliricidia sepium (�mata ratón�) y Heliotropium indicum (�rabo de alacrán�), colectadas en el estado Lara, Venezuela, en el control de la antracnosis ocasionada por el hongo Colletotrichum gloesporioides en frutos de mango (Mangifera indica). El extracto se obtuvo por presión reducida y se determinaron los grupos de metabolitos secundarios (MS) presentes en ellos. El patógeno se hizo crecer en el medio nutritivo PDA. La determinación del efecto de los EE a una concentración de 2,5% se hizo bajo tres métodos de aplicación in vitro. Frutos de mango fisiológicamente maduros fueron tratados con los extractos al 2,5 % y luego inoculados con el hongo. Se encontró que las plantas diferían en los grupos de MS. El EE del L. origanoides y H. indicum, homogenizados en el medio, ocasionaron la mayor disminución del crecimiento micelial de C.
gloeosporioides. Los EE de L. origanoides y G. sepium fueron los mejores tratamientos de postcosecha, ya que indujeron el 37 y 33 % menos de la enfermedad en los frutos de mango, respectivamente. Los resultados indican el potencial de los extractos para el manejo de la antracnosis del mango en postcosecha.
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