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Predicción de daños de la polilla guatemalteca Tecia solanivora (Povolny) 1973 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) en el Ecuador

Boletín de sanidad vegetal. Plagas, ISSN 0213-6910, Vol. 29, Nº 2, 2003, pags. 233-242
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ABSTRACT La polilla guatemalteca Tecia solanivora (Povolny) 1973 es probablemente la plaga más peligrosa para cultivos de papa en Sudamérica. En el Ecuador el manejo de este insecto resulta muy difícil, ya que los factores bióticos de control natural, prácticamente son inexistentes, las únicas regulaciones naturales encontradas en la provincia del Carchi, son abióticas y están relacionadas a factores climáticos. Se observaron resultados significativos de correlación múltiple entre los tubérculos infestados y las variaciones climáticas medidas durante los primeros meses de inicio del cultivo en las parcelas de investigación. Se registraron correlaciones fuertes entre la infestación de los tubérculos y el vuelo de los machos, capturados en trampas de feromonas, (R>0.90) así como también entre el clima que éstos encontraron en el campo. Estos resultados nos dan la posibilidad de predecir en los estados tempranos de la floración, dos meses antes de la cosecha, cual va a ser el porcentaje de infestación de los tubérculos. Necesitamos solamente una combinación de trampas de feromonas, un thermohigrógrafo y un pluviómetro.

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    ABSTRACT: The level of genetic diversity within populations of introduced species has received increasing attention as an important factor influencing their survival and adaptive potential. We examined this issue with the Guatemalan potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an agricultural pest which has successfully invaded South America and the Canary Islands within the last 20years. To analyse changes in T.solanivora genetic diversity, the mitochondrial marker cytochrome b was sequenced from individuals collected across its known distribution area. High haplotypic diversity was observed in Guatemala, whereas only three haplotypes have been found in Venezuela and a single one in the remaining invaded South American countries and the Canary Islands. Invasive haplotypes were not observed in our samples from Guatemala but are closely related to Guatemalan haplotypes. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that (i) either a few individuals were introduced into Venezuela leading to a strong initial genetic bottleneck, or selection pressure may have lead to the disparition of all but a reduced number of introduced haplotypes, (ii) a second bottleneck occured between Venezuela and Colombia, and (iii) the invasion of the Canary Islands originated from South America. We further reviewed the recent literature to compare this change in genetic diversity with those reported for other invasive species. We quantified the changes in genetic diversity between native and introduced ranges for 57 biological invasions. We found that the genetic homogenization in T.solanivora was among the strongest reported and discuss factors that can explain the success of invasive populations with low genetic diversity.
    Biological Invasions 10(3):319-333. · 2.51 Impact Factor

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