Article

Valoración de la percepción de la imagen corporal mediante modelos anatómicos

Antropo, ISSN 1578-2603, Vol. 8, 2004, pags. 107-116
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El interés de los estudios sobre alteraciones en la percepción de la imagen corporal es cada vez mayor. Sin embargo, todavía no se han desarrollado suficientes métodos objetivos para su valoración. Con este estudio se pretende valorar la percepción de la imagen corporal de un grupo de adultos jóvenes mediante el uso de modelos anatómicos y comparar dicha percepción con los valores reales del índice de masa corporal (IMC) con objeto de detectar posibles alteraciones en la autopercepción de la imagen corporal. Para ello se diseñaron 7 modelos anatómicos para ambos sexos correspondientes a valores de IMC de 18, 22, 25, 27, 30, 35 y 40 kg/m2. Cada persona, de las 158 que forman la muestra (65 hombres y 93 mujeres; 18-30 años), debía elegir el modelo con el que mejor se identificaba. Posteriormente, se tallaron y pesaron y se calculó el IMC real comparándolo posteriormente con el IMC percibido. El 52,3% de los hombres y el 38,7% de las mujeres eligen modelos que corresponden a sus IMC reales, es decir, los hombres se autoperciben más correctamente que las mujeres. El 29,2% de los hombres se ven más delgados de lo que son y el 18,5% más gordos. El 8,6% de las mujeres se ven más delgadas de lo que son y el 41,1% se autoperciben más gordas. Las mujeres con valores de IMC real correspondientes a normopeso y sobrepeso (IMC entre 20 y 29,9) se ven más gordas de lo que son en realidad, mientras que las obesas (IMC>30), se autoperciben más delgadas. Por el contrario, los hombres con normopeso y los obesos se auto-perciben más delgados de lo que son mientras que los que presentan sobrepeso se clasifican correctamente.

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