Los pescadores arcaicos de la desembocadura del río Loa (Norte de Chile): El Sitio Caleta Huelen 42. Chungara, 37(1), 5-19

Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena, ISSN 0716-1182, Vol. 37, Nº. 1, 2005, pags. 5-20 01/2013; DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562005000100002
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ABSTRACT The archaeological site of Caleta Huelén 42 is located on the northern edge of the mouth of the Loa river, in the northern Chile. The site relates culturally to the second phase of the Camarones Complex, as well as with the Quiani Complex. It represents an important southward continuum of the expansion of archaic fishing groups similar to Morro 1, Morro 1/6 and Camarones 14, towards the more southerly point of Punta Teatinos and El Cerrito. The materials that make up the collection were excavated in the 1970s by Núñez, Zlatar and Núñez; with osseous remains housed in the National Museum of Natural History (Santiago). the study is based on analysis of metric traits and indicators of pathology and traumas. Sexual dimorphism was measured through the one-way ANOVA method, and biological relationships with similar groups are inferred on the basis of multivariate analytical techniques (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos). The results suggest that a third of these individuals had signs of infection in their lower limbs. The percentage of persons with signs of osseous trauma is comparatively low (8,3 %) and is linked to accident-type injuries. Only a small part of the sample hints at nutritional pathologies. No traces of artificial cranial deformation are present, and sexual dimorphism is found in half the measurements. While it is possible to establish a common ancestral origin for all five of the groups compared in this study, the closest relationships are established among samples from the Arid North (Caleta Huelén 42 and the Morro de Arica samples, such as Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro 1/6), rather than with the series from the Semi-Arid North (El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos) El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 está ubicado en la margen norte de la desembocadura del río Loa en el norte de Chile. Culturalmente se encuentra relacionado con la segunda fase del Complejo Camarones y con el Complejo Quiani. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1, Morro 1-6 y Camarones 14 y que continúa hacia Punta Teatinos y El Cerrito, en el Norte Semiárido del país. Los materiales y restos humanos que componen la colección fueron excavados por Núñez, Zlatar y Núñez en la década de 1970, y los restos óseos fueron depositados en el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Santiago. El estudio de los individuos fue realizado mediante el relevamiento de un conjunto de rasgos métricos y de indicadores asociados con patologías y traumas. Se analiza el dimorfismo sexual a través del método ANOVA de una vía y se infieren relaciones biológicas con otros grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos) mediante el empleo de técnicas de análisis multivariado. Los principales resultados indican que un tercio de estos individuos muestra señales de infecciones en sus miembros inferiores. El porcentaje de personas con evidencias de traumatismo óseo es bajo, no sobrepasando el 8,3 % y la mayoría se relaciona con lesiones por accidentes. Las patologías nutricionales están presentes en una pequeña parte de la muestra. No fueron encontradas huellas de deformación craneana artificial. El dimorfismo sexual es demostrable en la mitad de las mediciones. Fue establecida una mayor relación entre las muestras del Norte Árido (Caleta Huelén 42 y las muestras de Arica tales como: Morro Uhle, Morro 1 y Morro 1/6) en comparación a las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta Teatinos)

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Available from: Jose Alberto Cocilovo, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "The Quiani culture was characterized as a group of marine foragers and hunters who experimented with horticultural practices (Arriaza 1995a; Cocilovo et al. 2005; Sutter 1997). Archaeological evidence suggests the Quiani were a completely sedentary group unlike their Chinchorro counterparts (Cocilovo et al. 2005; Rivera 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bioarchaeological studies have suggested a general trend whereby the health of past populations degraded as they transitioned from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a sedentary, agricultural lifestyle. Ancient societies of northern Chile provide a unique perspective on this debate in that while the earliest societies relied on hunting and gathering they were at the same time sedentary. Furthermore, later agricultural Chilean societies had relatively balanced diets since they also relied on fishing. Thus, this study examined four skeletal markers of health on sixty-one subadults ranging from the Archaic (7000-1000 B.C.) to Late Horizon (A.D. 1476-1532) periods in order to prove the impact of subsistence strategies and social organization on individuals' health. These health markers were cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis, trauma, dental pathological conditions, and infections. Despite the small sample size, this study gives a glimpse of childhood health conditions and morbidity patterns in northern Chile. The results showed no statistical differences of morbidity patterns between preagricultural and agricultural societies, a contradiction to previous assumptions about morbidity differences between preagricultural and agricultural societies. Introduction n the middle of the 20th century, archaeologists, physical anthropologists, and prehistorians began to question whether the health and lifestyles of societies may have changed as they transitioned from preagricultural to agricultural subsistence strategies. In 1982, Drs. Mark Cohen and George Armelagos brought together scholars at the "Impact on Human Health of the Neolithic Revolution" symposium in order to take an in-depth look at this question and provide possible answers based on studies of past human groups (Cohen and Armelagos 1984b). During this symposium, the researchers concluded that most populations suffered a decrease in health status as they moved from a hunter-gatherer subsistence strategy to an agricultural subsistence strategy as based on several factors, including a decline in nutritional intake and an increase in infection rates. This conclusion has been generally accepted by scholars today and is considered valid across most if not all ancient and modern populations today (Ember and Ember 1999; Feder and Park 2007; Jurmain et al. 1997; Reinhard 1992; Walker 1985).
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    ABSTRACT: In the following chapter, we discuss new data from the San Ramón 15 site, an Archaic Period iron oxide mine located off the coast of Taltal, in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Two periods of mining have been identified from stratigraphic and chronological evidence dating to the Early Archaic and the Late Archaic. In both cases, the miners were hunter–gatherer–fisher groups with residential mobility patterns across the arid coast of northern Chile. This site contains the oldest primary evidence of mining in the New World and regional archaeological information suggests that this early mining activity was primarily driven by social and ceremonial demands. We will review the importance of iron oxides in human prehistory, present the San Ramón 15 site in the context of the few archaeological mining sites known to date, and explore the role of this site within local settlement systems.
    Mining and quarrying in the ancient Andes: sociopolitical, economic and symbolic dimensions, Edited by K. Vaughn and N. Tripevich, 09/2013: chapter Hunter-gatherer-fisher mining during the archaic period in coastal northern Chile: pages 137-156; Springer.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the pre-Columbian sequence, Andean warfare ranged greatly in intensity. This review combines published information on cranial trauma and settlement patterns, which often align and clarify each other, to make an initial assessment of how severely Andean populations were affected by war over time and space. The data speak to a number of major topics in the archaeology of warfare, such as the origin of war, contrasts in state militarism, and changes in the practice of war related to social organization. Although there is considerable regional variation, two large-scale ‘‘waves’’ of escalated conflict that are clearly supported by the cranial trauma and settlement pattern data occurred in the Final Formative (late Early Horizon, 400 BC–AD 100) and the Late Intermediate period (AD 1000–1400).
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