Article

Efectos psicológicos de la actividad física en personas mayores

Psicothema, ISSN 0214-9915, Vol. 12, Nº. 2, 2000, pags. 285-292
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT En este trabajo se examinan los efectos de un programa de actividad física, aeróbica y no aeróbica, de 8 meses de duración en una muestra de personas mayores inicialmente sedentarias (rango 61-77 años) sobre el bienestar psicológico, el esfuerzo percibido y satisfacción por el ejercicio. Los sujetos participantes en el estudio fueron asignados a cuatro grupos: 1) grupo de ejercicio aeróbico (n=34), 2) grupo de ejercicio no-aeróbico (yoga) (n=30), 3) grupo control de actividades sociales (n=23) y 4) grupo control en lista de espera (n=20). Se utilizó como instrumento de evaluación de las respuestas psicológicas globales inducidas por el ejercicio la Subjective Excercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley y Courneya, 1994), como medida de la sensación del esfuerzo percibido, la Perceived Exertion Scales (RPE-Scales; Borg, 1982) y como medida de la satisfacción por el ejercicio la Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES; Kendzierski y DeCarlo, 1991). Los resultados obtenidos señalaron incrementos significativos en el bienestar psicológico y en la satisfacción en los dos grupos de ejercicio en comparación con los controles. El grupo de actividad aeróbica mostró puntuaciones significativamente más elevadas en el bienestar psicológico, la sensación de fatiga y la satisfacción por el ejercicio, que las observadas en el grupo de actividad no-aeróbica

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    • "Some evidence suggests that there may be further beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition throughout life, although the optimal amount and type of physical activity to support optimal brain function, probably vary over the life of people (Gracia and Marcó, 2000). It can reduce the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia by improving CR (Fabrigoule et al. 1995; Laurin et al. 2001; Scarmeas et al. 2001; Wang et al. 2002; Wilson et al. 2002). "
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    • "El análisis de las propiedades psicométricas mostró que esta nueva versión de la escala era válida y fiable para evaluar también el disfrute en la práctica físicodeportiva con adolescentes. La primera versión de la PACES (Kendzierski y DeCarlo, 1991) ha sido adaptada al contexto español por de Gracia y Marcó (2000) con una muestra de personas mayores (61-77 años) inscritas en programas de actividad física, revelando una adecuada fiabilidad interna y validez fac- torial. Frecuentemente, los investigadores han tratado de relacionar el disfrute con la motivación hacia la práctica físico-deportiva. "
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