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Diagnóstico de limitaciones físicas en inceptisoles de los llanos occidentales venezolanos

Bioagro, ISSN 1316-3361, Vol. 12, Nº. 1, 2000, pags. 15-24
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of deforestation due to agricultural frontier expansion and the increased use of fertilizers due to agricultural intensification has lead to an increase in the load of sediments and pollutants that negatively affect water quality in rural areas. This problem is particularly serious in the Colombian Andean region. This study applies a hydrological simulation model to compare the effect of four vegetable coverage management scenarios on nutrient migration from agricultural practices in the Upper Magdalena river basin. The simulation of water movement over hillsides and channels, which was run using the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models, showed an acceptable performance (S/ ?? =0.84, R=0.82, R2=0.67). However, pollutant migration showed a very low sensitivity to vegetable coverage in the configuration of the different model simulations (p > 0.05), with reductions in pollutant loads ranging only between 2 and 4%. Such reductions have to do with the intrinsic properties of vegetation (which act like a barrier to sediment flow,) with its ability to increase soil infiltration (therefore reducing runoff,) and with nutrient absorption by plants. La expansión e intensificación del uso de la frontera agrícola han determinado crecientes procesos de deforestación, así como el aumento de la fertilización, las cuales deterioran la calidad de agua en cuencas de áreas rurales. En Colombia esta problemática es especialmente marcada en la región andina. Este estudio aplica un modelo de simulación hidrológica para comparar el efecto de cuatro escenarios de manejo espacial de la cobertura sobre la migración de nutrientes provenientes de prácticas agrícolas en la cuenca alta del río Magdalena. La simulación del movimiento del agua por laderas y canales realizada mostró un aceptable desempeño (S/ ??=0,84; R=0,82; R2=0,67); sin embargo, la dinámica de migración de contaminantes fue insensible a los cambios en la cobertura vegetal realizados en las configuraciones de las distintas simulaciones (p?0,05), pues se encontraron reducciones en las cargas de contaminantes, en el punto de cierre del área de estudio, que oscilaban tan sólo entre 2% y 4%. Las reducciones presentadas se explican en razón de las propiedades intrínsecas de la vegetación, como barrera ante el flujo de sedimentos, su capacidad de aumentar los procesos de infiltración en el suelo y, por ende, disminuir los procesos de escorrentía y la absorción de nutrientes por parte de las plantas.
    Ingeniería y universidad, ISSN 0123-2126, Vol. 13, Nº. 2, 2009.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The combination of deforestation due to agricultural frontier expansion and the increased use of fertilizers due to agricultural intensification has lead to an increase in the load of sediments and pollutants that negatively affect water quality in rural areas. This problem is particularly serious in the Colombian Andean region. This study applies a hydrological simulation model to compare the effect of four vegetable coverage management scenarios on nutrient migration from agricultural practices in the Upper Magdalena river basin. The simulation of water movement over hillsides and channels, which was run using the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models, showed an acceptable performance (S/σΔ=0.84, R=0.82, R2=0.67). However, pollutant migration showed a very low sensitivity to vegetable coverage in the configuration of the different model simulations (p ≥ 0.05), with reductions in pollutant loads ranging only between 2 and 4%. Such reductions have to do with the intrinsic properties of vegetation (which act like a barrier to sediment flow,) with its ability to increase soil infiltration (therefore reducing runoff,) and with nutrient absorption by plants.
    Ingeniería y Universidad. 07/2009; 13(2):341-369.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The combination of deforestation due to agricultural frontier expansion and the increased use of fertilizers due to agricultural intensification has lead to an increase in the load of sediments and pollutants that negatively affect water quality in rural areas. This problem is particularly serious in the Colombian Andean region. This study applies a hydrological simulation model to compare the effect of four vegetable coverage management scenarios on nutrient migration from agricultural practices in the Upper Magdalena river basin. The simulation of water movement over hillsides and channels, which was run using the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models, showed an acceptable performance (S/ σΔ =0.84, R=0.82, R2=0.67). However, pollutant migration showed a very low sensitivity to vegetable coverage in the configuration of the different model simulations (p > 0.05), with reductions in pollutant loads ranging only between 2 and 4%. Such reductions have to do with the intrinsic properties of vegetation (which act like a barrier to sediment flow,) with its ability to increase soil infiltration (therefore reducing runoff,) and with nutrient absorption by plants.
    Ingeniería y Universidad. 01/2009;

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