La modelización con analogías en los textos de ciencias de Secundaria

Revista Eureka sobre enseñanza y divulgación de las ciencias, ISSN 1697-011X, Vol. 2, Nº. 3, 2005, pags. 430-439
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Se presenta un proceso de enseñanza con analogías, desarrollado con pautas de elaboración. Acorde con la idea de analogía presentada, se hace un análisis de su distribución en los libros de textos de ciencias de secundaria y, unido a ello, se destaca el papel atribuido a las mismas en distintas editoriales.

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    ABSTRACT: The use of an analogy from a semantically distant domain to guide the problemsolving process was investigated. The representation of analogy in memory and processes involved in the use of analogies were discussed theoretically and explored in five experiments. In Experiment I oral protocols were used to examine the processes involved in solving a problem by analogy. In all experiments subjects who first read a story about a military problem and its solution tended to generate analogous solutions to a medical problem (Duncker's "radiation problem"), provided they were given a hint to use the story to help solve the problem. Transfer frequency was reduced when the problem presented in the military story was substantially disanalogous to the radiation problem, even though the solution illustrated in the story corresponded to an effective radiation solution (Experiment II). Subjects in Experiment III tended to generate analogous solutions to the radiation problem after providing their own solutions to the military problem. Subjects were able to retrieve the story from memory and use it to generate an analogous solution, even when the critical story had been memorized in the context of two distractor stories (Experiment IV). However, when no hint to consider the story was given, frequency of analogous solutions decreased markedly. This decrease in transfer occurred when the story analogy was presented in a recall task along with distractor stories (Experiment IV), when it was presented alone, and when it was presented in between two attempts to solve the problem (Experiment V). Component processes and strategic variations in analogical problem solving were discussed. Issues related to noticing analogies and accessing them in memory were also examined, as was the relationship of analogical reasoning to other cognitive tasks. Peer Reviewed
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the ways in which analogies are used in the Energy and the Human Body curriculum will be examined and some preliminary assessments of successes and difficulties will be discussed. Also investigated will be what the first year's study trials suggest about the effective use of analogies in the middle-school classroom. Characteristics of good analogies for middle school students are suggested along with the question: When are analogies the right tool to use in helping students understand science concepts? (Contains 12 references.) (MVL)


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