Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad: intervención psicopedagógica

Psicothema, ISSN 0214-9915, Vol. 16, Nº. 3, 2004, pags. 408-414
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a psychopedagogical intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a cognitive-behavioural intervention among a sample of students diagnosed with ADHD, belonging to three public and five semi-public Primary Education Schools within the province of Granada. In order to carry out this research several evaluation test were administered to evaluate inhibitory control, motor-perceptive control, memory and attention, considered those as the core features of ADHD, at family and school settings. The intervention consisted of instructing parents and teachers as well as providing training to students. The results show that significant improvement was obtained by students at both family and school settings El propósito del estudio fue determinar el impacto de una intervención cognitivo-conductual sobre una muestra de alumnos diagnosticados con TDAH pertenecientes a ocho centros de enseñanza tres públicos y cinco concertados de Educación Primaria de la Provincia de Granada. Para llevar a cabo el estudio, se utilizaron diversas pruebas con las que se evaluó el control inhibitorio, el control perceptivomotor, la memoria y la atención, consideradas como las manifestaciones más comunes del TDAH, en el contexto familiar y escolar. La intervención se basó en la formación de padres y docentes, así como en un posterior entrenamiento específico y directo sobre el alumnado. Los resultados de la intervención, muestran que se han producido mejoras significativas en las conductas problema que presentaban los alumnos, tanto en el contexto familiar como escolar.

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    ABSTRACT: This article consists of a review of 16 research studies on treatments in school settings for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carried out in the last decade. It includes both simple interventions and multicomponent interventions where different techniques are combined. Based on this revision, the conclusion is drawn that, based on the evidence, school-based treatments for ADHD are effective in the short run for reducing disruptive behaviors and improving on-task behavior and academic performance of children with ADHD. Issues regarding the limitations to generalizing the improvements over time and across content areas are discussed. Furthermore, results from the MTA—a study designed to compare the efficacy of behavioral treatment (BT), medical management (MM), combined treatment (BT and MM), and a routine community care control group—are discussed. The MTA findings suggest that the most effective treatment for ADHD is a multimodal intervention that frequently includes concurrent medication in addition to parent training, school interventions, and child intervention.
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    ABSTRACT: Self-instruction strategy has been recognized as a relevant strategy in cognitive and behavioural regulation as a way of improving attention skills, namely in subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This paper aims at demonstrating the effectiveness of this strategy regarding this disorder in subjects with and without ADHD as a mean of promoting attention skills, particularly selective and sustained attention. The results showed that subjects who performed the verbal self-instruction strategy presented better results in both attention processes assessed, than those who did not do it.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess the differences among patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and control subjects, in relation to their global/analytical way of processing information and to find the best model based in Children´s Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) which permits prediction and diagnosis of ADHD, and analyzing the validity of the test for the diagnostic of the disease. Method: We study 100 ADHD cases (DSM-IV criteria) and 100 controls, ranging between 7 and 11 years of age, analyzed with CEFT. Controls were randomly recruited and matched by age, gender and sociodemography area with cases. Results: Cases show an average cognitive style significantly more field dependent (d = 1.36), reflecting a more global way of processing information than controls at all ages. The logistic regression model that best predicts ADHD is constituted by age, gender and CEFT direct marks and the derived formula from the model shows an 80% of sensitivity and a 84% specificity for ADHD, taking as gold standard the DSM-IV criteria. Conclusion: CEFT test shows utility and of appropriate validity for diagnosing ADHD.
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