Article

Los adolescentes y el consumo de drogas

Papeles del Psicologo 05/2013;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El consumo de drogas constituye en la actualidad un importante fenómeno social que afecta especialmente a los adolescentes, La prevalencia del uso y abuso de drogas en la etapa adolescente y adultez temprana son altas, Ante la alta disponibilidad, en la actualidad los adolescentes tienen que aprender a convivir con las drogas, tomando decisiones sobre su consumo o la abstinencia de las mismas. El proceso de socialización, con la familia, amigos, escuela y medios de comunicación es importante en ello. La percepción de riesgo y los factores de riesgo, junto al ocio, tiempo libre y vida recreativa, son elementos que debemos considerar para comprender esta problemática. Los psicólogos tenemos un importante papel que cumplir tanto para explicar esta compleja conducta como para la puesta en práctica de programas adecuados y eficaces de prevención y tratamiento.

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    • "In Spain, this type of behavior is frequent and give cause for concern, especially when it is combined with the driving of automobiles. Becoña (2000) points out that in 1988, 80% of school pupils between the ages of 14 and 18 reported that they had drunk alcohol in the previous year; in a recent study with teenagers from Madrid (Spain) aged 14 to 16, 67% reported that they drank alcohol at weekends (Caballero, Carrera, Sánchez, Shih, Muñoz, Toro, Fuente, and Muñoz, 2004). The consumption of alcohol by young people is not a problem exclusive to the Spanish context, but is unfortunately present in many cultures, including Western ones such as the USA (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages) could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.
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    • "In Spain, alcohol is still a " social drug " used in a ritual fashion at many everyday events (e.g., toasting at celebrations), and which has considerable social and economic consequences for public health. Thus, Becoña (2000) pointed out, based on the data from a 1998 survey of Spanish schoolchildren aged 14 to 18, that alcohol was the most widely consumed drug: over 80% of young people had consumed it in the last year, with a mean age at first consumption of 13.6 years. In a recent study, it was found that 67% of adolescents aged 14 to 16 drank alcohol, mainly on weekends and at parties (Caballero et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to study the differential and complementary role played by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables and by participants' emotions when recalling and describing previous experiences of such risk behavior in the prediction of the intention to repeat a risk behavior in the immediate future. We chose the behavior of occasional excessive drinking, a risk behavior characterized by evoking attitudinal ambivalence and eliciting mixed emotions, joy and sadness. The results show that emotional ambivalence is not equivalent to attitudinal ambivalence (whose indexes include that of the affective component), and that this emotional information is relevant for predicting the intention to repeat the risk behavior in the near future, enhancing the prediction of the TPB model.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 06/2007; 10(1):151-8. DOI:10.1017/S1138741600006417 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    • "Así, la revisión realizada por Espada, Méndez, Griffin y Botvin (2003) mostró que el abuso de alcohol en la adolescencia se relaciona con problemas de salud, fracaso escolar, sexo no planificado, problemas legales, alteraciones afectivas e inicio de consumo de otras drogas. Este último factor es especialmente significativo ya que el inicio y mantenimiento del consumo de drogas legales ha sido identificado como factor de riesgo y puente para iniciarse en el uso o abuso de drogas ilegales (Becoña, 2000; Plan Nacional sobre Drogas, 2005; Vargas y Trujillo, 2006). La naturaleza multicausal del uso y abuso de drogas legales en la adolescencia justifica que las intervenciones preventivas se dirijan principalmente a la modificación de los factores de riesgo y protección (Martínez-González et al., 2003; Sussman et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto fue analizar la relación entre variables de personalidad, ansiedad social, conducta prosocial, conducta antisocial y consumo de tabaco y alcohol en la adolescencia. La muestra se compuso de 352 estudiantes de 2º a 4º de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria. Los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson mostraron que el consumo de tabaco correlacionó positiva y significativamente con las puntuaciones en conducta antisocial, extraversión y neuroticismo, mientras que el consumo de alcohol correlacionó positiva y significativamente con las puntuaciones de psicoticismo, extraversión y conducta antisocial. El análisis de regresión logística reveló que los predictores del consumo de tabaco fueron las puntuaciones en conducta antisocial (OR = 1,03; IC 95% = 1,01¿1,05), extraversión (OR = 1,11; IC 95% = 1,02¿ 1,21) y neuroticismo (OR = 1,07; IC 95% = 1,01¿1,13), mientras que los predictores del consumo de alcohol fueron las puntuaciones en conducta antisocial (OR = 1,04; IC 95% = 1,02¿1,07) y extraversión (OR = 1,12; IC 95% = 1,03¿1,24).