[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression during pregnancy is common (∼15%). Routine prenatal depression screening coupled with the use of physician collaborators to assist in connecting women with care is critical to facilitate treatment engagement with appropriate providers. Providers should be aware of risk factors for depression – including a previous history of depression, life events, and interpersonal conflict – and should appropriately screen for such conditions. Depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, insufficient weight gain, decreased compliance with prenatal care, and premature labor. Current research has questioned the overall benefit of treating depression during pregnancy with antidepressants when compared to the risk of untreated depression for mother and child. Published guidelines favor psychotherapy above medication as the first line treatment for prenatal depression. Poor neonatal adaptation or withdrawal symptoms in the neonate may occur with fetal exposure in late pregnancy, but the symptoms are mild to moderate and transient. The majority of mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants during pregnancy suffer relapsing symptoms. If depression continues postpartum, there is an increased risk of poor mother–infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development, and behavioral problems in later life. Bipolar depression, anxiety and substance use disorders, and/or presence of severe psychosocial stress can lead to treatment-resistance. Modified and more complex treatment algorithms are then warranted. Psychiatric medications, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioral therapy, and adjunctive parent–infant/family treatment, as well as social work support, are modalities often required to comprehensively address all issues surrounding the illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate dispensing patterns and pregnancy outcomes for women dispensed an SSRI in pregnancy.
Using data linkage of population-based health datasets from Western Australia and a national pharmaceutical claims dataset, our study included 123,405 pregnancies from 2002 to 2005. There were 3764 children born to 3703 women who were dispensed an SSRI during their pregnancy.
A total of 42.3% of the women were dispensed an SSRI in each trimester, and 97.6% of the women used the same SSRI throughout the first trimester without switching. The women who were dispensed an SSRI were more likely to give birth prematurely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.7), to have smoked during the pregnancy (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1), and parity>1 (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-1.8). The singletons were found to have a lower birth weight than expected when other factors were taken into account (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3). There was an increased risk of major cardiovascular defects (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3). The children of women dispensed citalopram during the first trimester had an increased risk of vesicoureteric reflux (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.6). Children born to women dispensed sertraline had a higher mean birth weight than those born to women dispensed citalopram, paroxetine, or fluoxetine. This pattern was also seen in birth length.
Most women were dispensed the same SSRI throughout their pregnancy. We have confirmed previous findings with an increased risk of cardiovascular defects and preterm birth. New findings requiring confirmation include an increased risk of vesicoureteric reflux with the use of citalopram.
Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 03/2011; 91(3):142-52. DOI:10.1002/bdra.20773 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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