Genetic factors in substance abuse based on studies of Tourette Syndrome and ADHD probands and relatives. I. Drug abuse
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.42). 03/1994; 35(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1016/0376-8716(94)90104-X
There have been relatively few studies of genetic factors in drug abuse. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been implicated as a risk factor, and pedigree studies of Tourette Syndrome (TS), a hereditary impulse disorder closely related to ADHD, show an increased prevalence of substance abuse in relatives. These observations suggest the genes for TS and ADHD may play an important role in the development of drug abuse. To examine this hypothesis 217 TS probands and 328 of their relatives, 58 ADHD probands and 35 of their relatives, and 50 controls were prospectively studied using a structured questionnaire based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. All subjects were Caucasians 16 to 49 years of age. The responses concerning the use of 8 different drugs and 8 different symptoms of drug abuse were compared. The results showed a highly significant increase in positive responses with increased loading for the TS and ADHD genes for 6 of the 8 drugs and all of the drug abuse symptoms. The percentage of positive responses in TS probands was markedly influenced by the presence of comorbid ADHD, as well as discipline, obsessive-compulsive, or alcohol problems. These results suggest that the genes responsible for TS and ADHD play an important role in drug abuse/dependence. The dopamine D-2 receptor gene (DRD2) appears to be one of these genes since variants at this locus are significantly increased in frequency in TS, ADHD, conduct disorder and drug abuse.
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ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, neuropsychiatric disorder which has many similarities to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS probands have a high frequency of a variety of behavioral disorders including depression. The depression may be due to a pleiotrophic effect of the Gts genes, proband ascertainment bias, or a result of coping with the chronic tics. To distinguish between these hypotheses we examined the responses to 17 Diagnostic Interview Schedule questions to evaluate the 9 DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode in 1,080 adults consisting of TS and ADHD probands, their relatives and controls. Using a Bonferonni corrected p there was a significant progressive increase in 16 of 17 depressive symptoms and for a life time history of a major depressive episode in groups with increased genetic loading for Gts genes. Similar trends were seen in the small number of ADHD probands and their relatives. There was also a significant increase for these variables in non-proband TS relatives versus non-TS relatives, indicating the association of depression with Gts genes was not due to ascertainment bias or the inappropriate choice of controls. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that obsessive-compulsive behaviors, sex, ADHD, drug abuse, and age all showed a more significant effect on depressive symptoms than the number of tics. The presence or absence of TS in the relatives had a much greater effect on risk for depression than the presence or absence of an episode of major depression in the proband. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gts and ADHD genes play a major role in depression.American Journal of Medical Genetics 04/1995; 60(2):111-21. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.1320600206
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ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and substractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse and general anxiety-behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique.American Journal of Medical Genetics 05/1996; 67(3):264-88. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960531)67:3<264::AID-AJMG4>3.0.CO;2-N
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ABSTRACT: Halperin et al. (Halperin JM. Newcorn JH, Koda VH, Pick L, McKay KE, Knott P. Noradrenergic mechanisms in ADHD children with and without reading disabilities: a replication and extension. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997: 36: 1688 1696) reported a significant increase in plasma norepinephrine (NE) in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with reading and other cognitive disabilities compared to ADHD children without learning disabilities (LD). We examined the hypothesis that ADHD + LD was associated with NE dysfunction at a molecular genetic level by testing for associations and additive effects between polymorphisms at three noradrenergic genes the adrenergic alpha2A receptor (ADRA2A), adrenergic alpha2C receptor (ADRA2C), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) genes. A total of 336 subjects consisting of 274 individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) and 62 normal controls were genotyped. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between scores for ADHD, a history of LD, and poor grade-school academic performance that was greatest for the additive effect of all three genes. Combined, these three genes accounted for 3.5% of the variance of the ADHD score (p = 0.0005). There was a significant increase in the number of variant NE genes progressing from subjects without ADHD (A-) or learning disorders (LD-) to A + LD - to A - LD + to A + LD + (p = 0.0017), but no comparable effect for dopamine genes. These data support an association between NE genes and ADHD, especially in ADHD + LD subjects.Clinical Genetics 04/1999; 55(3):160-72. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0004.1999.550304.x
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