Cutaneous manifestations in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis
ABSTRACT Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) presents with an array of cutaneous manifestations. Newer changes are being described since the advent of hemodialysis, which prolongs the life expectancy, giving time for these changes to manifest. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatologic problems among patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: One hundred patients with CRF on hemodialysis were examined for cutaneous changes. Results: Eighty-two per cent patients complained of some skin problem. However, on examination, all patients had at least one skin lesion attributable to CRF. The most prevalent finding was xerosis (79%), followed by pallor (60%), pruritus (53%) and cutaneous pigmentation (43%). Other cutaneous manifestations included Kyrle's disease (21%); fungal (30%), bacterial (13%) and viral (12%) infections; uremic frost (3%); purpura (9%); gynecomastia (1%); and dermatitis (2%). The nail changes included half and half nail (21%), koilonychia (18%), onychomycosis (19%), subungual hyperkeratosis (12%), onycholysis (10%), splinter hemorrhages (5%), Mees' lines (7%), Muehrcke's lines (5%) and Beau's lines (2%). Hair changes included sparse body hair (30%), sparse scalp hair (11%) and brittle and lusterless hair (16%). Oral changes included macroglossia with teeth markings (35%), xerostomia (31%), ulcerative stomatitis (29%), angular cheilitis (12%) and uremic breath (8%). Some rare manifestations of CRF like uremic frost, gynecomastia and pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma were also observed. Conclusions: CRF is associated with a complex array of cutaneous manifestations caused either by the disease or by treatment. The commonest are xerosis and pruritus and the early recognition of cutaneous signs can relieve suffering and decrease morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Cutaneous manifestations occurring in patients with end stage renal failure on hemodialysis are polymorphic and diverse. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of different cutaneous manifestations in patients on hemodialysis. We led a transverse investigation of all patients on hemodialysis in 12 haemodialysis centres of Sfax (Tunisia). We examined 458 patients (254 men and 204 women). The hemodialysis history ranged from 6 months to 24 years. A total of 394/458 (86%) patients had cutaneous abnormalities. These included pruritus (56.6% of patients), paleness (60.7%), xerosis (52.8%), hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation (38.4%), venous dilation near the fistula (22.2%), eczema in the fistula area (14.8%), half-and-half nails (13.5%), onychodystrophy (6.1%), subungual hemorrhage (4.5%), leukonychia (4.5%), stomatitis (5.6%), xerostomia (3.2%), gingivitis (2.4%), uremic breath (2.1%), and skin calcificatins (0.4%). Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy was not detected in any of our patients. Pruritus, paleness, dry skin as well as hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation are the most frequent skin abnormalities observed in hemodialysis patients. The early recognition of some cutaneous conditions associated with end stage renal failure and hemodialysis may allow early therapeutic intervention and decrease morbidity.Journal of Dermatological Case Reports 12/2014; 8(4):86-94. DOI:10.3315/jdcr.2014.1182
Article: Uremic frost07/2014; 7(4):418-419. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfu057