A Complete Energy Level Diagram for All Trivalent Lanthanide Ions

Division of Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Journal of Solid State Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.13). 02/2005; 178(2):448-453. DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2004.07.046
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We describe the calculations of the 4fn energy levels, reduced matrix elements for 4fn-4fn transitions and the simulation of absorption and emission spectra. A complete 4fn energy level diagram is calculated for all trivalent lanthanide ions in LaF3: The calculated energy levels are compared with experimentally obtained energies. For Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb many, and in some cases all, energy levels have been observed. This work provides a starting point for future investigation of as yet unobserved VUV energy levels.

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    • "Considering the energy levels of all lanthanides, as shown in the Dieke energy level diagram (Dieke 1968, Peijzel et al. 2005, Wegh et al. 2000) it is immediately evident that the energy level structure of Yb 3+ is ideally suited to be used in down conversion for use in c-Si solar cells. The Yb 3+ ion has a single excited state (denoted by the term symbol 2 F 5/2 ) some 10,000 cm -1 above the 2 F 7/2 ground state, corresponding to emission around 1000 nm. "

    Third Generation Photovoltaics, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0304-2
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    ABSTRACT: The luminescence of trivalent lanthanide ions has found applications in lighting, lasers, optical telecommunications, medical diagnostics, and various other fields. This introductory review presents the basics of organic and inorganic luminescent materials containing lanthanide ions, their applications, and some recent developments. After a brief history of the discovery, purification and early spectroscopic studies of the lanthanides, the radiative and nonradiative transitions of the 4f electrons in lanthanide ions are discussed. Lanthanide-doped phosphors, glasses and crystals as well as luminescent lanthanide complexes with organic ligands receive attention with respect to their preparation and their applications. Finally, two recent developments in the field of luminescent materials are addressed: near-infrared luminescent lanthanide complexes and lanthanide-doped nano-particles.
    Science Progress 02/2005; 88(Pt 2):101-31. DOI:10.3184/003685005783238435
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