Tratamiento psicológico para el afrontamiento del cáncer de mama. Estudio comparativo entre estrategias de aceptación y de control cognitivo

Psicooncología, 2007 01/2007;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El objetivo principal de este estudio clínico es analizar los problemas psicológicos derivados del diagnóstico, tratamientos y secuelas del cáncer de mama como Trastorno de Evitación Experiencial (TEE) y aportar datos sobre las posibilidades de una intervención basada en la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT). Se pretende delimitar la eficacia de estrategias específicas de aceptación y de control cognitivo, definiendo más ajustadamente qué tipos de cambios propician unas estrategias en comparación con otras. 12 mujeres diagnosticadas y tratadas por cáncer de mama que acudían a la Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer y que cubrían criterios de selección, fueron asignadas al azar a dos condiciones de tratamiento, una basada en ACT, cuyo eje fue la estrategia de aceptación y otra basada en la terapia cognitiva, cuyo eje fueron las estrategias de control cognitivo. El tratamiento estuvo formado por 8 sesiones, 3 individuales y 5 grupales. Los grupos de tratamiento estuvieron formados por 3 mujeres. Se tomaron medidas de ansiedad, depresión, calidad de vida y áreas importantes afectadas, antes y después de la intervención (medidas pre, post test) y se realizaron tres seguimientos, a los 3, a los 6 y a los 12 meses. Los resultados mostraron una mayor repercusión de la intervención basada en ACT, especialmente cuando se tienen en cuenta los cambios a largo plazo (al año de seguimiento). También destaca que los cambios de la condición de ACT se centran en la activación conductual aún en presencia de malestar. The aim of current study was to analyze the psychological disorders associated with the diagnosis, treatment and consequences of breast cancer through the functional dimension of Emotional Avoidance, as well as to provide some empirical support for the usefulness of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in this domain. Specifically, the impact of acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based strategies was compared, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the elements that account for the changes observed with the respective psychological strategies. Twelve women diagnosed and treated with breast cancer who assisted to the Spanish Association against Cancer and who met certain selection criteria were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: six women received an ACT-based protocol which addressed acceptance strategies and six women received a Cognitive-based protocol which addressed cognitive control strategies. Each treatment consisted of 8 sessions, 3 individual sessions and 5 group sessions. 3 women integrated each treatment group. Measures on anxiety, depression, life quality and affected valued life areas were obtained at pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, three follow-up were taken, at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results showed a higher impact of the ACT-based intervention, mainly when long-term changes were considered (12 months follow-up). Other remarkable finding was that the changes observed in the ACT condition were associated to a behavioural activation, even when discomfort and suffering were present.

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