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Tratamiento psicológico para el afrontamiento del cáncer de mama. Estudio comparativo entre estrategias de aceptación y de control cognitivo

Psicooncología, 2007 01/2007;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El objetivo principal de este estudio clínico es analizar los problemas psicológicos derivados del diagnóstico, tratamientos y secuelas del cáncer de mama como Trastorno de Evitación Experiencial (TEE) y aportar datos sobre las posibilidades de una intervención basada en la Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT). Se pretende delimitar la eficacia de estrategias específicas de aceptación y de control cognitivo, definiendo más ajustadamente qué tipos de cambios propician unas estrategias en comparación con otras. 12 mujeres diagnosticadas y tratadas por cáncer de mama que acudían a la Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer y que cubrían criterios de selección, fueron asignadas al azar a dos condiciones de tratamiento, una basada en ACT, cuyo eje fue la estrategia de aceptación y otra basada en la terapia cognitiva, cuyo eje fueron las estrategias de control cognitivo. El tratamiento estuvo formado por 8 sesiones, 3 individuales y 5 grupales. Los grupos de tratamiento estuvieron formados por 3 mujeres. Se tomaron medidas de ansiedad, depresión, calidad de vida y áreas importantes afectadas, antes y después de la intervención (medidas pre, post test) y se realizaron tres seguimientos, a los 3, a los 6 y a los 12 meses. Los resultados mostraron una mayor repercusión de la intervención basada en ACT, especialmente cuando se tienen en cuenta los cambios a largo plazo (al año de seguimiento). También destaca que los cambios de la condición de ACT se centran en la activación conductual aún en presencia de malestar. The aim of current study was to analyze the psychological disorders associated with the diagnosis, treatment and consequences of breast cancer through the functional dimension of Emotional Avoidance, as well as to provide some empirical support for the usefulness of the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in this domain. Specifically, the impact of acceptance-based and cognitive-control-based strategies was compared, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the elements that account for the changes observed with the respective psychological strategies. Twelve women diagnosed and treated with breast cancer who assisted to the Spanish Association against Cancer and who met certain selection criteria were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: six women received an ACT-based protocol which addressed acceptance strategies and six women received a Cognitive-based protocol which addressed cognitive control strategies. Each treatment consisted of 8 sessions, 3 individual sessions and 5 group sessions. 3 women integrated each treatment group. Measures on anxiety, depression, life quality and affected valued life areas were obtained at pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, three follow-up were taken, at 3, 6 and 12 months. Results showed a higher impact of the ACT-based intervention, mainly when long-term changes were considered (12 months follow-up). Other remarkable finding was that the changes observed in the ACT condition were associated to a behavioural activation, even when discomfort and suffering were present.

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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the oncological diseases in which health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been most studied. This is mainly due to its high incidence and survival. This paper seeks to: review published research into HRQL among women with breast cancer in Spain; analyse the characteristics of these studies; and describe the instruments used and main results reported. The databases consulted were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Dialnet, IBECS, CUIDEN, ISOC and LILACS. The inclusion criteria required studies to: 1) include Spanish patients, and a breakdown of results where other types of tumours and/or women from other countries were also included; and, 2) furnish original data and measure HRQL using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. Spain ranked midway in the European Union in terms of the number of studies conducted on the HRQL of breast cancer patients. Of the total of 133 papers published from 1993 to 2009, 25 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, only 12 were considered as having good or excellent quality. A total of 2236 women participated in the studies analysed. In descending order of frequency, the questionnaires used were the EORTC, FACT-B, QL-CA-Afex, SF-12, FLIC, RSCL and CCV. Five papers focused on validation or adaptation of questionnaires. Most papers examined HRQL in terms of type of treatment. Few differences were detected by type of chemotherapy, with the single exception of worse results among younger women treated with radiotherapy. In the short term, better results were reported for all HRQL components by women undergoing conservative rather than radical surgery. Presence of lymphedema was associated with worse HRQL. Three studies assessed differences in HRQL by patients' psychological traits. Psychosocial disorder and level of depression and anxiety, regardless of treatment or disease stage, worsened HRQL. In addition, there was a positive effect among patients who reported having a "fighting spirit" and using "denial" as a defence mechanism. One study found that breast cancer patients scored worse than did healthy women on almost all SF-12 scales. Research into health-related quality of life of breast-cancer patients is a little developed field in Spain.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 01/2011; 9:3. · 2.27 Impact Factor

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