Effect of nitrogen rate on grain yield of bread wheat genotypes

Genetika (Impact Factor: 0.35). 01/2010; 42(2):279-286. DOI: 10.2298/GENSR1002279G


The improvement in grain yield is the main objective of bread wheat breeding programs. Numerous studies indicate that nitrogen is the key factor of yield and quality in the wheat. The goal of this paper is to investigate variability of grain yield, of twelve bread wheat genotypes, on three nitrogen level. ANOVA showed that this trait was mostly under influence of the genotype (36, 3%), year × genotype interaction (26, 3%), year of investigation (14, 1%), and in the smallest amount of the nitrogen rate (8, 8%). On all three nitrogen level, the highest grain yield was found in the variety Malyska. The lowest grain yield in control was found in the variety Nevesinjka, while in the N75 and N100 rates it was found in the variety Tamaro. The mean performance of individual cultivars, in nine environments (three years × three nitrogen rates), was depicted using which-won-were view of SREG2 biplot. The nine environments fall into two sectors, which is an indication of a strong crossover GE interaction. Genotype Malyska was the winner (the highest yielding variety) in first sector containing seven environments, while genotypes Pertrana and Axis were the winners in second sector containing two environments.

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    ABSTRACT: Gorjanovic B., M. Brdar-Jokanovic, and M. Kraljevic-Balalic (2011): Phenotypic variability of bread wheat genotypes for nitrogen harvest index-Genetika, Vol 43, No. 2, 419 -426. Nitrogen harvest index (grain nitrogen content over total nitrogen content ratio) is a measure of the efficiency of nitrogen translocation from the vegetative portions of the plant to the grain. It can be recommended as a selection criterion for nitrogen use efficiency improvement. The aim of this study was to investigate nitrogen harvest index in twelve bread wheat genotypes at three nitrogen levels and to classify genotypes according to their phenotypic similarity for the examined trait. The results of factorial ANOVA showed that nitrogen harvest index was influenced mostly by the year x genotype interaction, year of investigation and genotype; and to the lowest extent by the applied nitrogen rate. Increasing nitrogen doses did not lead to the increased nitrogen harvest index. The calculated nitrogen harvest index values were the highest for wheat growing season 2004/05, and the smallest for the season 2006/07. The highest nitrogen harvest indices were calculated for cultivars Pobeda at the N-0 rate and Zlatka at the N-100 rate (0.93), and the lowest for cultivar Tamaro at the N-0 rate (0.63). Analyzing the constructed dendogram, cultivars Pobeda and Renan at all three levels of nitrogen supply can be singled out as the genotypes with the highest, and cultivar Tamaro as the variety with the lowest harvest index value. The results of this study may be used in developing new high-yielding bread wheat cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency. Growing such cultivars would provide the savings in mineral fertilizers and minimize their possible harmful effect on environment.
    Genetika 01/2011; 43(2):419-426. DOI:10.2298/GENSR1102419G · 0.35 Impact Factor