Quitting Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2001–2010

Yearbook of Pulmonary Disease 01/2012; 2012:72-74. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypdi.2012.01.021
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature on smoking cessation interventions, with a focus on the last 20 years (1991 to 2010). These two decades witnessed major development in a wide range of cessation interventions, from pharmacotherapy to tobacco price increases. It was expected that these interventions would work conjointly to increase the cessation rate on the population level. This paper examines population data from the USA, from 1991 to 2010, using the National Health Interview Surveys. Results indicate there is no consistent trend of increase in the population cessation rate over the last two decades. Various explanations are presented for this lack of improvement, and the key concept of impact = effectiveness × reach is critically examined. Finally, it suggests that the field of cessation has focused so much on developing and promoting interventions to improve smokers' odds of success that it has largely neglected to investigate how to get more smokers to try to quit and to try more frequently. Future research should examine whether increasing the rate of quit attempts would be key to improving the population cessation rate.
    Tobacco control 03/2012; 21(2):110-8. DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050371 · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study assessed attitudes, behaviors, and barriers among general dentists in California, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, related to patient tobacco cessation counseling. Methods: From 2004 to 2008, a baseline survey was mailed to 271 study dentists randomly selected from a master Delta Dental Insurance Company provider list in each state who had agreed to participate in a tobacco cessation randomized clinical trial. Four backward logistic regression models assessed correlates of the five As related to tobacco cessation: Asking about tobacco use, Advising users to quit, Assessing readiness to quit, Assisting with quitting, and Arranging follow-up. Results: Most respondents (n=265) were male, had practiced dentistry for over 15 years, asked about tobacco use (74%), and advised tobacco users to quit (78%). Only 19% assessed readiness to quit; 39% assisted with quitting; 4% arranged follow-up; and 42% had formal training in tobacco cessation. Believing that tobacco cessation counseling was an important professional responsibility, practicing <15 years, and asking about tobacco use significantly related to advising users to quit. Providing cessation advice and feeling effective intervening related to assessing readiness to quit. Advising users to quit, assessing readiness to quit, feeling effective intervening, and having had formal tobacco cessation training related to assisting with quitting. Barriers to cessation counseling were perceived patient resistance (66%), lack of insurance reimbursement (56%), not knowing where to refer (49%), and lack of time (32%). Conclusion: Study dentists reported not fully performing the five As. Advising, assessing, having formal training, and feeling effective increased the likelihood of cessation counseling.
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry 06/2012; 73(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00347.x · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine why young people might want to undergo genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer despite knowing that tested gene variants are associated with small increases in disease risk. Methods: The authors used a mixed-method approach to evaluate motives for and against genetic testing and the association between these motivations and testing intentions in 128 college students who smoke. Results: Exploratory factor analysis yielded four reliable factors: Test Scepticism, Test Optimism, Knowledge Enhancement and Smoking Optimism. Test Optimism and Knowledge Enhancement correlated positively with intentions to test in bivariate and multivariate analyses (ps<0.001). Test Scepticism correlated negatively with testing intentions in multivariate analyses (p<0.05). Open-ended questions assessing testing motivations generally replicated themes of the quantitative survey. Conclusion: In addition to learning about health risks, young people may be motivated to seek genetic testing for reasons, such as gaining knowledge about new genetic technologies more broadly.
    Tobacco control 06/2012; 22(6). DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050306 · 5.93 Impact Factor
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