Residual paralysis is common after general anesthesia involving administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs). Management of NMBDs and reversal is frequently guided by train-of-four (TOF) monitoring. We hypothesized that monitoring of eye muscles is associated with more frequent residual paralysis than monitoring at the adductor pollicis.
This prospective cohort study enrolled 180 patients scheduled for elective surgery with anticipated use of NMBDs. Collected variables included monitoring site, age, gender, weight, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class, type and duration of surgery, type of NMBDs, last and total dose administered, TOF count at time of reversal, dose of neostigmine, and time interval between last dose of NMBDs to quantitative measurement. Upon postanesthesia care unit admission, we measured TOF ratios by acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis. Residual paralysis was defined as a TOF ratio less than 90%. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for unbalances between the two groups and to adjust for covariates.
150 patients received NMBDs and were included in the analysis. Patients with intraoperative TOF monitoring of eye muscles had significantly greater incidence of residual paralysis than patients monitored at the adductor pollicis (P < 0.01). Residual paralysis was observed in 51/99 (52%) and 11/51 (22%) of patients, respectively. The crude odds ratio was 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.4), and the adjusted odds ratio was 5.5 (95% CI: 2.1-14.5).
Patients having qualitative TOF monitoring of eye muscles had a greater than 5-fold higher risk of postoperative residual paralysis than those monitored at the adductor pollicis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After elective ear surgery with cisatracurium neuromuscular blockade, 48 adults were randomly assigned to receive neostigmine: (a) at appearance of the fourth twitch of a ‘train-of-four’; (b) at loss of fade to train-of-four; or (c) at loss of fade to double-burst stimulation, all monitored using a TOF-Watch SX® on one arm. For each of these conditions, the recovery from train-of-four (TOF) ratio was measured in parallel objectively using a TOF-Watch SX placed on the contralateral arm. The median (IQR [range]) time from administration of reversal to a train-of-four ratio ≥ 0.9 was 11 (9–15.5 [2–28]) min, 8 (4–13.5 [1–25]) min and 7 (4–10 [2–15]) min in the three groups, respectively. This recovery time was significantly shorter when reversal was given at loss of fade to double-burst stimulation (c), than when given at the appearance of the fourth twitch (a), p = 0.046. However, the total time to extubation may be unaffected as it takes longer for fade to be lost after double-burst stimulation than for four twitches subjectively to appear.
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