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    ABSTRACT: This article provides a multipart analysis of the public schools' responsibility for students with concussions. The first part provides the prevailing diagnostic definitions of concussions and postconcussive syndrome. The second and central part provides (a) the legal framework of the two overlapping federal laws-the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the varying state laws or local policies for individual health plans and (b) a summary of the developing body of hearing officer decisions, court decisions, and Office for Civil Rights rulings that have applied this framework to K-12 students with concussions. The final part offers recommendations for proactive return to school policies, with the school nurse playing a central supporting role.
    The Journal of School Nursing 02/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1177/1059840514521465 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Concussions in collegiate athletics can affect student-athletes both on the field and in the classroom. As policies are made to outline return-to-play decisions and timelines, this article will make the case that return-to-academics should also be included and follow a step-wise protocol. Complete cognitive rest is a cornerstone of concussion recovery and slow reintroduction to academics should precede return-to-play. The college structure allows for student-athletes to begin small doses of cognitive activity after the recommended complete cognitive rest. It is recommended that return-to-academics involves a team approach to help the student-athlete navigate the responsibilities of course work while healing from a brain injury.
    Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000133 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine high school principals' self-reported resources, knowledge, and practices regarding the management of students returning to school following concussion. A cross-sectional survey of public high school principals in the state of Ohio assessed respondent and school demographics, respondent concussion training, school resources, and monitoring and accommodation practices for students with concussion. Of the 695 eligible high school principals, 465 (66.9%) completed the survey. Over one-third of principals (37.2%) had some form of concussion training in the past year. Those with training were more likely to promote training of other school faculty (57.4% vs 30.6%, P < .001). Principals were asked to identify school personnel who are designated as case managers for students with concussion. Schools without a designated case manager were less likely to have an athletic trainer (P < .001) and had fewer students (median 424.5 vs 599) than schools with a case manager. Principals could list at least 1 faculty designee who communicates with health professionals more often for student-athletes than for nonathletes (P < .001). Most principals were willing to provide students with short-term academic accommodations, but 30.1% required a health professional's note prior to making any academic changes. Only 32% of principals reported providing families with a written academic plan following concussion. Schools differ in their resources and management strategies for students returning to school after concussion. Understanding these differences can help health professionals to overcome potential barriers in managing their school-aged patients with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatrics 10/2014; 166(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.038 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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