Elemental Composition of Airborne Particles in Traffic-Affected Brisbane Areas

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    ABSTRACT: This research concerns the development of an Negotiation Support Systems (NSS) based on a multi-criteria conceptual framework of the negotiation and developed according to a multi-agent architecture from Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). A first prototype of such a system, NegocIAD, has already been developed [8], but the weakness of its assistance to the negotiation process have led us to revise the conceptual framework in order to define a more relevant assistance to the negotiation process. This paper presents this new conceptual framework defined in order to develop a new prototype. First, we point out the originality of our multi-criteria and multi-agent approach, the general architecture and the limitations of NegocIAD. Then we present the new multi-criteria conceptual framework mainly based on the definition and the use of projection plans (group Gaia plans) emerging from principal component analysis (PCA) already proposed in a single decision maker context in extension of the Promethee method. In the next part, we develop the possible levels of use of these plans during the negotiation process and the type of assistance provided to the mediator. This assistance is mainly based on the elaboration and the interpretation of group Gaia plans for which we propose a set of interpretation rules and the outline of a method to make use of these rules for a relevant support to the mediator in the management of the negotiation process. Finally, we conclude on the perspectives of our future researches and developments for the new generation of our prototype in a multi-agent architecture context.
    European Journal of Operational Research 12/1997; · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aerosol samples for PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 um) were collected from September 1993 to August 1994 at five sites representing the major land use patterns in Brisbane, a subtropical coastal city in Australia. The samples collected were analysed by techniques such as ion beam analysis and the integrating plate laser absorption method, and the chemical composition of the samples was reconstructed from the observed elemental composition. For these PM10 samples, the major components, on average, were crustal matter (25% by mass), organics (17%), sea salt (12%), elemental carbon (10%) and ammonium sulphate (7%). Aerosol samples of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected by a dichotomous sampler at one of the sites (GU), a site on university buildings located in a suburban area of Brisbane but surrounded by a buffer zone provided by a forest conservation area. A high average fine Br/Pb ratio of 0.36 in the GU samples, which is close to that in vehicle exhausts, indicates that this site probably has low background levels of lead even though there has been significant traffic in the area for 20 years, so the forest area is an effective buffer to road dust from the surrounding suburbia. Temporal trends at this site suggest that road side dust and industry-sourced crustal matter could contribute to more than half of the mass of crustal matter. Seasonal meteorological conditions which determine the dispersion of pollutants out of Brisbane and the continuous input of rural dust into Brisbane are potentially important factors influencing the level of crustal matter in Brisbane. However, major rural dust events do not considerably increase the seasonal average level of crustal matter. Also, apart from significant local influences at some sites (such as heavy road traffic network or a cement factory), the results from the GU site show a similar level of elemental and chemical components from anthropogenic sources to sites in heavy industrial and commercial/light industrial sites, indicating that most anthropogenic emissions are evenly and widely distributed in Brisbane.
    Atmospheric Environment 11/1997; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study to characterize particulate matter emissions from 195 in-use gasoline and diesel passenger vehicles was conducted during the summer of 1996 and the winter of 1997 in the Denver, Colorado region. Vehicles were tested as received on chassis dynamometers using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Both PM-10 and regulated emissions were measured for each phase of the UDDS. Approximately 88% of the PM-10 collected was carbonaceous material, of which the average organic fraction was 0.7 for gasoline vehicles and 0.4 for diesel vehicles. This suggests that the organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) split may be useful in separating light-duty gasoline from diesel PM emissions. Sulfate emission rates averaged 0.45 and 3.51 mg/mi for gasoline and diesel vehicles, indicating that the EPA's mobile emissions model overpredicts sulfate emission rates. Elements identified by X-ray fluorescence averaged between 3 and 9% of the PM-10 mass. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles developed may help distinguish between gasoline and diesel vehicles in source apportion ment studies. Total PAH emissions, however, were not a good candidate as a tracer of gasoline PM emissions. Hopane and sterane emissions were very similar across the fleet and may be useful tracers for mobile source PM emissions. Overall, emission rates varied significantly with vehicle classification and driving condition, suggesting that a single profile representing the entire fleet will need to carefully reflect the local fleet composition and the local weighting of cold, hot, and hot-stabilized emissions.
    Environmental Science and Technology 07/1999; 33(14):2328-2339. · 5.48 Impact Factor

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May 19, 2014