The endogenous cannabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis
ABSTRACT The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in the regulation of food intake. Here we show that the lack of CB1 in mice with a disrupted CB1 gene causes hypophagia and leanness. As compared with WT (CB1(+/+)) littermates, mice lacking CB 1 (CB1(-/-)) exhibited reduced spontaneous caloric intake and, as a consequence of reduced total fat mass, decreased body weight. In young CB1(-/-) mice, the lean phenotype is predominantly caused by decreased caloric intake, whereas in adult CB1(-/-) mice, metabolic factors appear to contribute to the lean phenotype. No significant differences between genotypes were detected regarding locomotor activity body temperature, or energy expenditure. Hypothalamic CB 1 mRNA was found to be coexpressed with neuropeptides known to modulate food intake, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and prepro-orexin, indicating a possible role for endocannabinoid receptors within central networks governing appetite. CB1(-/-) mice showed significantly increased CRH mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced CART mRNA levels in the dorsomedial and lateral hypothalamic areas. CB1 was also detected in epidydimal mouse adipocytes, and CB1-specific activation enhanced hpogenesis in primary adipocyte cultures. Our results indicate that the cannabinoid system is an essential endogenous regulator of energy homeostasis via central orexigenic as well as peripheral lipogenic mechanisms and might therefore represent a promising target to treat diseases characterized by impaired energy balance.
- SourceAvailable from: Palmiero Monteleone[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The endocannabinoid, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha ligand, oleylethanolamide (OEA) produce opposite effects on lipogenesis. The regulation of OEA and its anti-inflammatory congener, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in adipocytes and pancreatic beta-cells has not been investigated. We report here the results of studies on acylethanolamide regulation in these cells during obesity and hyperglycaemia, and provide an overview of acylethanolamide role in metabolic control. We analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry OEA and PEA levels in: 1) mouse 3T3F442A adipocytes during insulin-induced differentiation, 2) rat insulinoma RIN m5F beta-cells kept in 'low' or 'high' glucose, 3) adipose tissue and pancreas of mice with high fat diet-induced obesity (DIO), and 4) in visceral fat or blood of obese or type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. In adipocytes, OEA levels remain unchanged during differentiation, whereas those of PEA decrease significantly, and are under the negative control of both leptin and PPAR-gamma. PEA is significantly downregulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of DIO mice. In RIN m5F insulinoma beta-cells, OEA and PEA levels are inhibited by 'very high' glucose, this effect being enhanced by insulin, whereas in cells kept for 24 h in 'high' glucose, they are stimulated by both glucose and insulin. Elevated OEA and PEA levels are found in the blood of T2D patients. Reduced PEA levels in hypertrophic adipocytes might play a role in obesity-related pro-inflammatory states. In beta-cells and human blood, OEA and PEA are down- or up-regulated under conditions of transient or chronic hyperglycaemia, respectively.British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2007; 152(5):676-90. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707424 · 4.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids modulate energy homeostasis and decrease cognitive arousal, possibly by acting on hypothalamic neurons including those that synthesize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or hypocretin/orexin. Using patch-clamp recordings, we compared the actions of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on identified MCH or hypocretin neurons in green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. The cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist R-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpho linylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate (WIN55,212,2) depolarized MCH cells and increased spike frequency; in contrast, WIN55,212,2 hyperpolarized and reduced spontaneous firing of the neighboring hypocretin cells, both results consistent with reduced activity seen with intracerebral cannabinoid infusions. These effects were prevented by AM251 [N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], a CB1R antagonist, and by tetrodotoxin, suggesting no postsynaptic effect on either neuron type. In MCH cells, depolarizing WIN55,212,2 actions were abolished by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that the CB1R-mediated depolarization was attributable to reduced synaptic GABA release. WIN55,212,2 decreased spontaneous IPSCs, reduced the frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs, and reduced electrically evoked synaptic currents in MCH cells. Glutamate microdrop experiments suggest that WIN55,212,2 acted on axons arising from lateral hypothalamus local inhibitory cells that innervate MCH neurons. In hypocretin neurons, the reduced spike frequency induced by WIN55,212,2 was attributable to presynaptic attenuation of glutamate release; CB1R agonists depressed spontaneous and evoked glutamatergic currents and reduced the frequency of miniature EPSCs. Cannabinoid actions on hypocretin neurons were abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Together, these results show that cannabinoids have opposite effects on MCH and hypocretin neurons. These opposing actions could help explain the increase in feeding and reduction in arousal induced by cannabinoids.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2007; 27(18):4870-81. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0732-07.2007 · 6.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the hippocampus, impaired neurophysiology, compromised neurogenesis, and eventually apoptosis accompany cognitive deficits in insulinopenic (type-1) diabetes (T1D). The underlying pathological mechanisms remain to be defined. The hippocampus has a high density of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB(1)R), which has been shown to control several brain functions affected by diabetes, such as synaptic plasticity, glucose utilisation, memory consolidation and cognition, and maturation and survival of hippocampal neurons. However, the role of this receptor has not been investigated yet in diabetic encephalopathy. We report now that in the streptozotocin animal model of T1D, the hippocampal densities of CB(1)R protein and of specific CB(1)R binding sites are significantly increased both in the nerve terminals and in total membranes (changes between 13% and 38%), whereas CB(1)R mRNA expression is decreased by 25%, suggesting that CB(1)Rs might play a role in diabetic encephalopathy.Experimental Neurology 04/2007; 204(1):479-84. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.11.013 · 4.62 Impact Factor