GENETIC CHARACTERISATION OF ITALIAN CHICKEN BREEDS USING A PANEL OF TWENTY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
ABSTRACT Genetic relationships among four Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 190 DNA samples (45 Robusta Lionata, 43 Robusta Maculata, 45 Ermellinata di Rovigo, 45 Pèpoi) and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet) were genotyped at 20 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 and the expected heterozygosity resulted lower for the local breeds than for the commercial broiler line used as reference. The inbreeding coefficient showed a deficit of heterozygotes, highest for the Robusta Lionata breed. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da), based on allele frequencies, and Reynolds distances (DReynolds) were calculated among breeds. The Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata resulted very similar approving the same genetic origin. A Neighbor-Joining tree drawn from DReynolds distances clustered three groups, one including the Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata breeds, the second one formed by the Ermellinata di Rovigo and the Golden Comet commercial line and the third by the Pèpoi. The results showed the genetic differences occurring between the local chicken breeds.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Massimo De Marchi, Jul 07, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Domestication of livestock species and a long history of migrations, selection and adaptation have created an enormous variety of breeds. Conservation of these genetic resources relies on demographic characterization, recording of production environments and effective data management. In addition, molecular genetic studies allow a comparison of genetic diversity within and across breeds and a reconstruction of the history of breeds and ancestral populations. This has been summarized for cattle, yak, water buffalo, sheep, goats, camelids, pigs, horses, and chickens. Further progress is expected to benefit from advances in molecular technology.Animal Genetics 05/2010; 41 Suppl 1:6-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02038.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In common domestic species for which varieties, strains or breeds are in danger of extinction, the population levels at which action needs to be taken are object of research in many countries. Different approaches have been developed and exploited to understand the different aspects that contribute to breed differentiation and to study the typical products that originate from them. The thesis is made up of three contributes. The objectives of the first one were to determine genetic variation and to analyze population structure in six Italian local chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Twenty microsatellite markers were investigated in 337 animals belonging to six breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo, Robusta Maculata, Robusta Lionata, Pepoi, Padovana and Polverara; a commercial layer cross was used as reference. One-hundred-twelve alleles were detected in the overall population, with a mean number of 5.6 ± 2.1 alleles per locus. For the local breeds, the observed and expected heterozigosity ranged from a minimum of 0.240 to a maximum of 0.413 and from 0.243 to 0.463 for the Pépoi and Polverara breeds, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been observed in five breeds and in the commercial cross. The overall population heterozygote deficiency FIT, resulted 0.427, the average FIS 0.097, while FST was 0.437, indicating a high heterozygote deficiency mainly due to breed subdivisions. Reynolds distances were used to draw an unrooted Neighbor-Joining tree, which topology gave information on the genetic origin of these breeds and confirmed their known history. The estimated molecular kinship within breed ranged from 0.559 to 0.769, evidencing high coancestry. Structure analysis was performed to detect the presence of population substructures. Inferred clusters corresponded to the different breeds, without presence of admixture. Exception was the Polverara, for which a more complex genetic structure was found. Obtained results confirmed the usefulness of molecular markers, as microsatellites, to characterize local breeds and to monitor genetic diversity in livestock conservation schemes. The objective of the second contribute was to describe carcass characteristics and qualitative meat traits of three local chicken breeds showing, at maturity, light, medium-light, and medium live weights. By the fact, those breeds could permit to extend and diversify consumer’s offer to fit all the local demands in typical diversified poultry products. The experiment involved 60 male chickens reared in an organic production system where housing was an indoor pen with access to a grass paddock was carried out in order to investigate carcass characteristics and qualitative meat traits of three slow-growing Italian local breeds of chicken (Ermellinata, Padovana, and Pépoi). Chicks were randomly selected at hatch, raised together under the same conditions, slaughtered at 190 days of age, dissected for carcass traits and meat was stored for subsequent analysis of breast and thigh meat quality. Ermellinata chickens were consistently heavier than Padovana and Pépoi chickens for live, carcass, thigh weight and there were differences among breeds for protein percentage (Ermellinata > Pépoi and Padovana), shear force (Padovana < Ermellinata and Pépoi), and cooking loss (Pépoi > Padovana and Ermellinata). The CIE system values of lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) evidenced a distinctive darker and lighter colour of Padovana for meat and skin, respectively. Fatty acid composition of breast was similar among the studied breeds, while saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids contents of Ermellinata were higher and lower, respectively than the other breeds. Aim of the third study was to apply a proteomic approach for characterization of local chicken breeds. The experiment involved a total of 29 males of Pépoi, Padovana, and Ermellinata local chicken breeds. Samples were taken from breast muscle (Pectoralis superficialis). Sarcoplasmic protein fractions of breast muscle were analysed by bidimensional electrophoresis. Image analysis followed by statistical analysis enabled to differentiate groups of individuals on the similarities of protein expression. Individuals were distinguished into clusters and groups, corresponding to the breed of origin. SAM analysis enabled identification of the most relevant spots; 10 of these were identified by Mass Spectrometry revealing preliminary evidences on the mechanics of the breed differentiation process. Results evidenced a possible utilisation of proteomic approach in the field of breed characterization studies as an alternative to genomic analyses performed using molecular markers, both for breed and product traceability purposes.
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ABSTRACT: Microsatellite markers have been a useful genetic tool in determining diversity, relationships and individual discrimination studies of livestock. The level of genetic diversity, relationships among two Korean indigenous chicken brand populations (Woorimatdag: WR, Hanhyup3: HH) as well as two pure populations (White Leghorn: WL, Rhode Island Red: RIR) were analyzed, based on 26 MS markers. A total of 191 distinct alleles were observed across the four chicken populations, and 47 (24.6%) of these alleles were unique to only one population. The mean and PIC were estimated as 0.667 and 0.630. Nei's genetic distance and factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) showed that the four populations represented four distinct groups. However, the genetic distance between each Korean indigenous chicken brand (WR, HH) and the pure population (WL, RIR) were threefold that among the WR and HH. For the STRUCTURE analyses, the most appropriate number of clusters for modeling the data was determined to be three. The expected probabilities of identity among genotypes of random individuals (PI) were calculated as (All 26 markers) and , (9, 12 with the highest PI value, respectively). The results indicated that the brand chicken breed traceability system employing the own highest PI value 9 to 12 markers, and might be applicable to individual identification of Korean indigenous chicken brand.06/2013; 55(3). DOI:10.5187/JAST.2013.55.3.185