Inhibition of Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer by CP-31398, a TP53 Modulator, Alone or in Combination with Low Doses of Celecoxib in Male F344 Rats

Department of Medicine, Hem-Onc Section, University of Oklahoma Cancer Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 10/2009; 69(20):8175-82. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1377
Source: PubMed


Tumor suppressor p53 plays a major role in colorectal cancer development. The present study explores the effects of p53-modulating agent CP-31398 alone and combined with celecoxib on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon adenocarcinomas in F344 rats. Maximum tolerated doses were 400 and 3,000 ppm for CP-31398 and celecoxib, respectively. ACF and tumor efficacy endpoints were carried out on azoxymethane-treated 7-week-old rats (48 per group) fed the control AIN-76A diet. Two weeks after carcinogen treatment, rats were fed the diets containing 0, 150, or 300 ppm CP-31398, 300 ppm celecoxib, or 150 ppm CP-31398 plus 300 ppm celecoxib. ACF and colon adenocarcinomas were determined at 8 and 48 weeks after azoxymethane treatment, respectively. Dietary CP-31398 was shown to suppress mean colonic total ACF by 43% and multicrypt ACF by 63%; dietary CP-31398 at 150 and 300 ppm suppressed adenocarcinoma incidence by 30.4% (P < 0.02) and 44% (P < 0.005), respectively, and adenocarcinoma multiplicity by 51% (P < 0.005) and 65% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Dietary celecoxib suppressed colon adenocarcinoma incidence (60%; P < 0.0003) and multiplicity (70%; P < 0.0001). Importantly, combination of low-dose CP-31398 and celecoxib suppressed colon adenocarcinoma incidence by 78% and multiplicity by 90%. Rats that were fed the high-dose CP-31398 or a combination of low-dose CP-31398 and celecoxib showed considerable enhancement of p53 and p21(WAF1/CIP) expression, apoptosis, and reduced tumor cell proliferation in colonic tumors. These observations show, for the first time, that CP-31398 possesses significant dose-dependent chemopreventive activity in a well-established colon cancer model and that a combination of low-dose CP-31398 and celecoxib significantly enhanced colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy.

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    • "Dose selection was based on our previous toxicity studies; CP- 31398 doses of up to ∼400 ppm and Prima-1 doses of up to ∼600 ppm were tolerable in rodent models when administered chronically with AIN-76A diet for 9 weeks [25]. In the present study, we applied 12.5% and 25% of the maximally tolerated dose of CP-31398 and 25% and 50% of the maximally tolerated dose of Prima-1 to assess the chemopreventive efficacy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Expression of the p53 tumor suppressor protein is frequently altered in tobacco-associated lung cancers. We studied chemopreventive effects of p53-modulating agents, namely, CP-31398 and Prima-1, on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma formation in female A/J mice. Seven-week-old mice were treated with a single dose of NNK (10 µmol/mouse) by intraperitoneal injection and, 3 weeks later, were randomized to mice fed a control diet or experimental diets containing 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 or 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 for either 17 weeks (10 mice/group) or 34 weeks (15 mice/group) to assess the efficacy against lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Dietary feeding of 50 or 100 ppm CP-31398 significantly suppressed (P < .0001) lung adenocarcinoma by 64% and 73%, respectively, after 17 weeks and by 47% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Similarly, 150 or 300 ppm Prima-1 significantly suppressed (P < .0001) lung adenocarcinoma formation by 56% and 62%, respectively, after 17 weeks and 39% and 56%, respectively, after 34 weeks. Importantly, these results suggest that both p53 modulators cause a delay in the progression of adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung tumors from mice exposed to p53-modulating agents showed a significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased accumulation of wild-type p53 in the nucleus. An increase in p21- and apoptotic-positive cells was also observed in lung tumors of mice exposed to p53-modulating agents. These results support a chemopreventive role of p53-modulating agents in tobacco carcinogen-induced lung adenocarcinoma formation.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 09/2013; 15(9):1018-27. DOI:10.1593/neo.131256 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    • "In a rat model of colon cancer, CP-31398 was found to inhibit 63% of multicrypt aberrant crypt foci and up to 65% of adenocarcinoma multiplicity induced by a chemical carcinogen [12]. Inhibition of colon adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity was also observed when CP-31398 was combined with the low-dose cyclooxygenase inhibitor celecoxib in rats [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group) were fed control (AIN-76A) or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001). A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6-80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9-55.3%, P < .0001 in females) was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm) completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V) with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 08/2013; 15(8):966-74. DOI:10.1593/neo.13704 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, restoration or stabilization of p53 function presents an attractive strategy for cancer prevention and therapy. CP-31398 has demonstrated measurable in-vitro effects against several cancer cell lines [5] [6] [7] as well as chemopreventive efficacy in animal models for skin [4] and colon [3] [8] carcinogenesis, and it is often used as an activity benchmark for novel drugs targeting p53 [9]. In this work, we present validated methodology for the determination of CP-31398 in plasma of experimental animals by LC-MS/MS, along with a stability evaluation of the agent. "
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and accurate approach for the determination of CP-31398 (N-{2-[(E)-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-vinyl]-quinazolin-4-yl}-N',N'-dimethyl-propane-1,3-diamine hydrochloride) in rat and dog plasma by LC-MS/MS was validated to support preclinical toxicological and pharmacological studies. Based on the results of stability experiments with diluted CP-31398 solutions using NMR, LC-MS/MS and LC-Q-TOF, all sample preparation and handling steps were performed under yellow light to avoid CP-31398 decomposition. CP-31398 was extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and separated using a Phenomenex Luna 3μm phenyl-hexyl, 100Å, 30×2.0mm column (rat plasma) or a Phenomenex Synergi 4μ Polar-RP, 80Å, 30×2.0mm column (dog plasma) at a flow rate of 0.30mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of A: 1% formic acid in water and B: 1% formic acid in methanol or acetonitrile. Total run times for rat and dog samples were 7 and 8min, respectively, with accompanying retention times of 1.8 for both columns. A turbo ion spray interface was used as the ion source operating in positive mode. Calibration curves were linear from 5 to 1000ng/mL. Linearity was assessed using the external standard method. Within-run and between-run accuracy was 93-109% of the true value for all analytes with precision (SD) of 8% or less for all experiments. The validated method was applied to preclinical toxicology studies in rats and dogs after oral administration of CP-31398.
    Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 12/2011; 56(4):809-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2011.07.013 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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