Minimizing catheter-related bloodstream infections: one unit's approach.
ABSTRACT Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is the most common complication related to peripherally inserted central catheters in the neonatal intensive care unit. CRBSIs are responsible for many morbidities and mortalities occurring in special care nurseries. However, these vascular access devices are an essential aspect of neonatal care and therefore are indispensable. To minimize CRBSI incidences and improve patient outcomes, objectives must be established to focus on the prevention of these potentially life-threatening infections. This article identifies the interventions incorporated by our facility to prevent nosocomial bloodstream infections.
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ABSTRACT: The vascular catheter hub is a potential portal of entry for microorganisms that cause catheter-related sepsis. Thus, a reduction in catheter hub contamination might reduce the incidence of catheter-related sepsis. To develop a regimen suitable for reducing microbial contamination of the catheter hub, we experimentally contaminated catheter hubs and assessed the efficacies of disinfectant solutions. Catheter hubs were incubated overnight with suspensions of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Candida parapsilosis. After removal of unattached microorganisms, the catheter hubs were swabbed by rotating cotton swabs dipped in 1% chlorhexidine, 1% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 97% ethanol, or normal saline. Posttreatment swabs of the catheter hub were obtained and cultured quantitatively. The cleaning regimens containing ethanol were the most effective. Seventy percent ethanol was more effective than chlorhexidine and is likely to be the safest treatment. We conclude that cleaning of the catheter hub with disinfectant can dramatically reduce microbial contamination.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1993; 31(3):475-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) have been used to provide central venous access for more than 25 years. Although these lines initially were placed by physicians, currently there are many adult, pediatric, and neonatal nurse-based PICC teams. This article describes the inception and growth of 1 team which, during the last 14 years, has placed more than 3400 catheters and trained more than 50 bedside nurses to insert PICCs. It highlights the development of the team, including details of how team members were selected and trained. Management of ongoing issues was handled by a self-directed nurse team organized into a committee structure composed of an oversight committee and education, guideline, qualifications, and quality improvement subcommittees. This team set and achieved the goals of training bedside nurses to place PICCs, providing consistent management of PICCs, and closely monitoring outcomes.Advances in Neonatal Care 03/2007; 7(1):22-9.
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ABSTRACT: Neonates who require a central venous catheter (CVC) for prolonged vascular access experience high rates of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). A multicenter randomized clinical trial was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of a novel chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing (Biopatch Antimicrobial Dressing) on the CVC sites of neonates for the prevention of catheter tip colonization, CRBSI, and bloodstream infection (BSI) without a source. Setting. Six level III neonatal intensive care units. Patients Studied. Neonates admitted to study units who would require a CVC for at least 48 hours. Eligible infants were randomized before catheter placement to 1 of the 2 catheter site antisepsis regimens: 1) 10% povidone-iodine (PI) skin scrub, or 2) a 70% alcohol scrub followed by placement of a chlorhexidine-impregnated disk over the catheter insertion site. A transparent polyurethane dressing (Bioclusive Transparent Dressing) was used to cover the insertion site in both study groups. Primary study outcomes evaluated were catheter tip colonization, CRBSI, and BSI without an identified source. Seven hundred five neonates were enrolled in the trial, 335 randomized to receive the chlorhexidine dressing and 370 to skin disinfection with PI (controls). Neonates randomized to the antimicrobial dressing group were less likely to have colonized CVC tips than control neonates (15.0% vs 24.0%, relative risk [RR]: 0.6 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-0.9). Rates of CRBSI (3.8% vs 3.2%, RR: 1.2, CI: 0.5-2.7) and BSI without a source (15.2% vs 14.3%, RR: 1.1, CI: 0.8-1.5) did not differ between the 2 groups. Localized contact dermatitis from the antimicrobial dressing, requiring crossover into the PI treatment group, occurred in 15 (15.3%) of 98 exposed neonates weighing </=1000 g. No neonates in the PI group developed contact dermatitis. The novel chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing, replaced weekly, was as effective as cutaneous disinfection with 10% PI and redressing the site every 3 to 7 days for preventing CRBSI and BSI without a source in critically ill neonates requiring prolonged central venous access. The risk of local contact dermatitis under the chlorhexidine dressing limits its use in low birth weight infants who require prolonged central access during the first 2 weeks of life.PEDIATRICS 06/2001; 107(6):1431-6. · 4.47 Impact Factor