Minimizing catheter-related bloodstream infections: one unit's approach.
ABSTRACT Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is the most common complication related to peripherally inserted central catheters in the neonatal intensive care unit. CRBSIs are responsible for many morbidities and mortalities occurring in special care nurseries. However, these vascular access devices are an essential aspect of neonatal care and therefore are indispensable. To minimize CRBSI incidences and improve patient outcomes, objectives must be established to focus on the prevention of these potentially life-threatening infections. This article identifies the interventions incorporated by our facility to prevent nosocomial bloodstream infections.
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ABSTRACT: Although reports of reduced nosocomial infections (NI) in very low birth weight infants have been published, the durability of these gains and changes in secondary outcomes, and clinical practices have less often been published. This was a retrospective, observational study of NI reduction in very low birth weight infants at two hospital campuses. The intervention began in 2005 with our renewed quality improvement efforts to reduce NI. We compared outcomes before (2000-2005) and after (2006-2009) the intervention by using univariate and multiple regression analyses. We reduced NI by 50% comparing 2000-2005 to 2006-2009 (23.6% vs 11.6%, P < .001). Adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio for NI was 0.33 (confidence interval, 0.26 - 0.42, P < .001) in the more recent era. NI were lower even in infants with birth weight 501-1000 grams (odds ratio = 0.38, confidence interval, 0.29 - 0.51, P < .001). We also reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (30.2% vs 25.5%, P = .001), median days to regain birth weight (9 vs 8, P = .04), percutaneously placed central venous catheter use (54.8% vs 43.9%, P = .002), median antibiotic days (8 vs 6, P = .003), median total central line days (16 vs 15, P = .01), and median ventilator days (7 vs 5, P = .01). We sustained improvements for three years. Quality improvement efforts were associated with sustained reductions in NI, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, antibiotic use, central line use, and ventilator days.PEDIATRICS 12/2011; 129(1):e165-73. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of a vascular access team on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Data sources MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web-of-Science and the Cochrane Library were searched until December 2013. Study Selection Studies that evaluated the implementation of a vascular access team, and focused on the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, were selected. Data Extraction Incidence rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections were extracted, as well as information on vascular access team tasks and team composition. The quality of studies was critically appraised using the McMaster tool for quantitative studies. Data Synthesis Seven studies involving 136 to 414 participants were included. In general, the implementation of a vascular access team coincided with the implementation of concurrent interventions. All vascular access teams included nurses, and occasionally included physicians. Main tasks included insertion and maintenance of central lines. In all studies, a relative decrease of 45-79% in central line-associated bloodstream infections was reported. CONCLUSIONS: A vascular access team is a promising intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. However, level of evidence for effectiveness is low. Future research is required to improve the strength of evidence for vascular access teams.International journal of nursing studies 12/2014; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are costly, preventable infections targeted for eradication by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After evaluation of current practice and areas for improvement, neonatal-specific CLABSI and VAP bundles were developed and implemented on the basis of available best evidence. The overall goal was to reduce infection rates at or below benchmarks set by National Healthcare Safety Network. All neonates with central lines (umbilical or percutaneous) and/or patients who were endotracheally intubated were included. All patients were risk stratified on the basis of weight per National Healthcare Safety Network reporting requirements: less than 750 g, 751-1000 g, 1001-1500 g, 1501-2500 g, and greater than 2500 g. The research was conducted as a quality improvement study. Neonatal-specific educational modules were developed by neonatal nurse leaders for CLABSI and VAP. Bundle development entailed combining select interventions, mainly from the adult literature, that the nurse leaders believed would reduce infection rates. Nursing practice guidelines and supply carts were updated to ensure understanding, compliance, and convenience. A CLABSI checklist was initiated and used at the time of line insertion by the nurse to ensure standardized infection control practices. Compliance audits were performed by nurse leaders weekly on intubated patients to validate VAP bundle implementation. CLABSI and VAP bundle compliance was audited and infection rates were measured before and after both bundle implementations following strict National Healthcare Safety Network inclusion criteria for CLABSI and VAP determination. The reduction in CLABSI elicited 84 fewer hospital days, estimated cost savings of $348,000, a 92% reduction in CLABSI (preintervention to postintervention), and a reduction in central line days by 27%. The reduction in VAP resulted in 72 fewer hospital days, estimated cost savings of $300,000, 71% reduction in VAP (preintervention to postintervention), and a reduction in vent days by 31%. Nurses are central in hospital efforts to improve quality care. The bundled interventions provided the nurses with a structure to successfully implement a systematic process for improvement. Nursing leaders ensured that bundles were implemented strategically and provided consistent and specific feedback on intervention compliance with quarterly CLABSI and VAP rates. Real-time feedback assisted the registered nurses, neonatal nurse practitioners, and physicians appreciation of the effectiveness of the change in practice. Finally, empowering the bedside nurse to lead the bundle implementation increased personal ownership and compliance and ultimately improved practice and patient outcomes.Advances in Neonatal Care 06/2013; 13(3):154-63.