Glycans on influenza hemagglutinin affect receptor binding and immune response.
ABSTRACT Recent cases of avian influenza H5N1 and the swine-origin 2009 H1N1 have caused a great concern that a global disaster like the 1918 influenza pandemic may occur again. Viral transmission begins with a critical interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which is on the viral coat of influenza, and sialic acid (SA) containing glycans, which are on the host cell surface. To elucidate the role of HA glycosylation in this important interaction, various defined HA glycoforms were prepared, and their binding affinity and specificity were studied by using a synthetic SA microarray. Truncation of the N-glycan structures on HA increased SA binding affinities while decreasing specificity toward disparate SA ligands. The contribution of each monosaccharide and sulfate group within SA ligand structures to HA binding energy was quantitatively dissected. It was found that the sulfate group adds nearly 100-fold (2.04 kcal/mol) in binding energy to fully glycosylated HA, and so does the biantennary glycan to the monoglycosylated HA glycoform. Antibodies raised against HA protein bearing only a single N-linked GlcNAc at each glycosylation site showed better binding affinity and neutralization activity against influenza subtypes than the fully glycosylated HAs elicited. Thus, removal of structurally nonessential glycans on viral surface glycoproteins may be a very effective and general approach for vaccine design against influenza and other human viruses.
Article: Structure and function in rhodopsin: high-level expression of rhodopsin with restricted and homogeneous N-glycosylation by a tetracycline-inducible N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative HEK293S stable mammalian cell line.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An HEK293S cell line resistant to ricin was prepared by mutagenesis by using ethyl methanesulfonate. It was shown to lack N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) activity, and consequently unable to synthesize complex N-glycans. The tetracycline-inducible opsin expression system was assembled into this GnTI(-) HEK293S cell line. Stable cell lines were isolated that gave tetracycline/sodium butyrate-inducible expression of the WT opsin gene at levels comparable with those observed in the parent tetracycline-inducible HEK293S cell line. Analysis of the N-glycan in rhodopsin expressed by the HEK293S GnTI(-) stable cell line showed it to be Man(5)GlcNAc(2). In a larger-scale expression experiment (1.1 liter) a WT opsin production level of 6 mg/liter was obtained. Further, the toxic constitutively active rhodopsin mutant, E113Q/E134Q/M257Y, previously shown to require inducible expression, has now been expressed in an HEK293S GNTI(-)-inducible cell line at levels comparable with those obtained with WT rhodopsin.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2002; 99(21):13419-24. · 9.68 Impact Factor