Enhancing sunscreen efficacy in the 'real' world?
ABSTRACT Sunscreens, used in the prevention of sunburn and skin cancer, have been commercialized since the 1930s. Their utilization is expanding, particularly in response to photoaging and an increase of skin cancer. However, failures occur in sunscreen use because their efficacy depends on the adequacy of application and utilization. This overview documents issues in sunscreen use and also discusses 2007 FDA-proposed rules to offer possible options for enhanced efficacy and communications to the consumer.
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ABSTRACT: Background The ability of sunscreen products to delay sun-induced skin erythema is indicated by the sun protection factor (SPF), which is measured using an internationally agreed sunscreen thickness of 2 mg cm−2.Objectives To determine the thickness of sunscreen used under practical conditions.Methods In two double-blind randomized trials performed in five different places in Europe in 1997 and 1998, 148 18–24-year-old students received either an SPF 10 or an SPF 30 sunscreen to be used during their summer holidays.Results Complete, detailed data on quantities of sunscreen used and skin areas on to which sunscreen was applied were available for 124 students. The median thickness of sunscreen applied was 0·39 mg cm−2. We found no variation in sunscreen thickness according to sex, skin phototype, study place or SPF.Conclusions Our results indicate that most consumers do not benefit from the SPF indicated on sunscreen bottles, and do not support the idea that thickness of sunscreen applied would be greater if these products were cheaper. We suggest that information on ability of a sunscreen product to prevent sunburn should be adapted in order to reflect actual usage patterns.British Journal of Dermatology 01/2001; 144(2):288 - 291. · 3.76 Impact Factor
Article: Pitfalls in sunscreen application.Archives of Dermatology 06/1994; 130(5):665-6. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Marathon running has surged in popularity; it is generally believed to be healthy, but may be associated with medical risks. Over the past decade, we observed 8 ultramarathon runners with malignant melanoma. UV exposure, immunosuppression due to long-term intensive exercise, or both have been discussed as potential triggers in these patients. To further evaluate risk factors for malignant melanoma in marathon runners, we examined anamnestic, phenotypic, sun-related, and clinical variables in 210 athletes and compared them with those of an age- and sex-matched control group. Although control subjects exhibited higher sun sensitivity and more common melanocytic nevi, marathon runners presented with more atypical melanocytic nevi, solar lentigines, and lesions suggestive of nonmelanoma skin cancer. These findings correlated with increasing training intensity. During exercising, most runners wore shorts (96.7%) and shirts (98.6%) that would not or would only partially cover their back and extremities. Regular use of sunscreen was reported in only 56.2% of runners. Compared with a representative control group, marathon runners presented with an increased risk for malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. They should reduce UV exposure during exercising by choosing training and competition schedules with low sun exposure, wearing adequate clothing, and regularly using water-resistant sunscreens.Archives of Dermatology 12/2006; 142(11):1471-4. · 4.31 Impact Factor