Amifostine for salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Medical College Qingdao University, Jiangsu Road 16, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China, 266003. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
(Impact Factor: 6.03).
07/2009; 4(4):CD007956. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007956.pub2
Radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer possibly results in xerostomia. Amifostine has been used to prevent the effects of irradiation to salivary glands. To date, the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer remain uncertain.
To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer.
Studies were obtained from computerized searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and paper collections of conferences held in Chinese.
Randomised controlled clinical trials and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing the effects of amifostine on salivary glands after radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer with placebo and a duration of follow up of at least three months.
Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data.
Two trials with 130 patients (67 and 63 patients randomised to intervention versus control) were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. Amifostine versus placebo showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of xerostomia (130 patients, two studies), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of technetium-99m by salivary or submandibular glands at twelve months (80 patients, one study), and the reduction of blood pressure (130 patients, two studies). Two patients in one study collapsed after initiation of amifostine therapy and had to be treated by withdrawing the infusion and volume substitution. Both patients recovered without sequelae. Meta-analysis was not performed on the function of salivary glands measured by technetium-99m scintigraphy at three months after high dose radioactive iodine treatment due to the highly inconsistent findings across studies (I(2) statistic 99%). None of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.
Results from two randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that the amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Moreover, no health-related quality of life and other patient-oriented outcomes were evaluated in the two included trials. Randomised controlled clinical trials with low risk of bias investigating patient-oriented outcomes are needed to guide treatment choice.
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- "Between 300 000 and 500 000 patients undergo radiation therapy each year worldwide,1 and as a consequence, most of these patients will experience severe salivary gland hypofunction. Neither the prophylactic use of amifostine2 to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia nor symptomatic treatment strategies, such as pilocarpine, have offered satisfactory relief from symptoms. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy holds great promise in reducing xerostomia;3 however, it is neither available nor applicable in the majority of cancer patients. "
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ABSTRACT: Xerostomia is a severe side effect of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. To date, no satisfactory treatment option has been established. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a potential treatment modality, we aimed to evaluate stem cell distribution following intravenous and intraglandular injections using a surgical model of salivary gland damage and to analyse the effects of MSC injections on the recruitment of immune cells. The submandibular gland ducts of rats were surgically ligated. Syngeneic adult MSCs were isolated, immortalised by simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and characterized by flow cytometry. MSCs were injected intravenously and intraglandularly. After 1, 3 and 7 days, the organs of interest were analysed for stem cell recruitment. Inflammation was analysed by immunohistochemical staining. We were able to demonstrate that, after intravenous injection, MSCs were recruited to normal and damaged submandibular glands on days 1, 3 and 7. Unexpectedly, stem cells were recruited to ligated and non-ligated glands in a comparable manner. After intraglandular injection of MSCs into ligated glands, the presence of MSCs, leucocytes and macrophages was enhanced, compared to intravenous injection of stem cells. Our data suggest that injected MSCs were retained within the inflamed glands, could become activated and subsequently recruited leucocytes to the sites of tissue damage.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 9 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.23.
International Journal of Oral Science 05/2014; 6(3). DOI:10.1038/ijos.2014.23 · 2.53 Impact Factor
Available from: Uma S Bhartiya
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ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the radioprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum on the salivary gland of rats administered radioiodine ((131)I) and compared its efficacy with a known radioprotectant, amifostine. The experimental rats were divided in four groups and sacrificed in three different batches at 1, 3, and 6 months of time interval after 18.5 MBq/100g (i.p.) (131)I exposure. Six months duration batch received (131)I exposure twice with the gap of 3 months. Two groups of experimental rats were presupplemented with O. sanctum (40 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) and amifostine (200 mg/kg, s.c) before (131)I exposure separately. Increased Technetium-99m-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(4)(-)) uptake at 30 minutes post injection in salivary glands of only (131)I exposed rats may imply delay in clearance at 6 months of exposure in comparison to their counterparts sacrificed at 1 month. Parotid gland histology showed atrophy with lipomatosis in only (131)I exposed rats at 3 and 6 months of duration. O. sanctum and amifostine presupplemented and subsequently exposed to (131)I rats at 3 and 6 months duration exhibited comparable histopathology with controls. Our study indicates possible radioprotective effect of O. sanctum and amifostine against high-dose (131)I exposure.
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 11/2011; 26(6):737-43. DOI:10.1089/cbr.2011.1014 · 1.78 Impact Factor
Available from: Andres Pinto
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ABSTRACT: Evidence to address a scientific question is generated through the design of research aiming to answer it. Probably the most often sought design in epidemiologic research is a randomized clinical trial that offers the advantage of controlling for confounders, which may influence the trial outcome. In contrast, observational study designs test hypotheses when clinical trials are difficult to implement. The interest in clinical trials has led to an explosion of manuscripts testing interventions in health care, often yielding interesting results albeit in statistically underpowered samples. Thus, the clinician faces the challenge of making sense of multiple studies that produce results of variable strength when attempting to assess the evidence supporting a treatment. Meta-analytic methods represent an alternative to assess the evidence by pooling the results from multiple studies to increase statistical power. This manuscript describes considerations for planning and implementing meta-analysis in oral medicine.
05/2013; 116(2). DOI:10.1016/j.oooo.2013.02.024
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