Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia
ABSTRACT In many countries of the industrialised world second generation (atypical) antipsychotics have become first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. The question as to whether, and if so how much, the effects of the various second generation antipsychotics differ is a matter of debate. In this review we examine how the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole differs from that of other second generation antipsychotics.
To evaluate the effects of aripiprazole compared with other atypical antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses.
We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO.
We included all randomised trials comparing oral aripiprazole with oral forms of amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychoses.
We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (MD) again based on a random-effects model.
The review currently includes four trials with 1404 participants on two out of eight possible comparisons - aripiprazole versus olanzapine and aripiprazole versus risperidone. The overall number of participants leaving the studies early was considerable (38.5%), limiting the validity of the findings, but with no significant differences between groups. Aripiprazole was less efficacious than olanzapine in terms of the general mental state (PANSS total score: n=794, 2 RCTs, MD 4.96 CI 1.85 to 8.06), but it was associated with fewer side-effects such as cholesterol increase, weight gain, sedation and prolactin associated side-effects. Compared with risperidone there was no difference in efficacy (PANSS total score: n=372, 2 RCTs, MD 1.50 CI -2.96 to 5.96). Dystonia, QTc abnormalities, prolactin and cholesterol increase were less frequent in the aripiprazole group, while tremor was more frequent in the aripiprazole group compared with those allocated risperidone.
Aripiprazole may be somewhat less effective than olanzapine, but more tolerable in terms of metabolic effects and sedation. There is no evidence for a difference in efficacy compared to risperidone, but for better tolerability in terms of dystonias, cholesterol prolactin increase and QTc prolongation. Randomised evidence comparing aripiprazole with other second generation antipsychotic drugs is currently not available.
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ABSTRACT: Resumen El cambio de antipsicóticos es un hecho frecuente en la práctica clínica y está sujeto a potenciales complicaciones clínicamente relevantes. Un grupo de expertos seleccionados por la Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría y la Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría Biológica ha revisado y discutido las pruebas provenientes de los ensayos clínicos y otros artículos relevantes para llegar a unas recomendaciones de consenso sobre el cambio de antipsicóticos. En este artículo se revisa toda la información que ha dado lugar a esas recomendaciones y que incluye: indica-ciones y contraindicaciones del cambio de antipsicóticos, aspectos farmacológicos, estrategias de cambio, el cambio por motivos de eficacia, el cambio por motivos de tolerabilidad (inclu-yendo los síntomas extrapiramidales y la discinesia tardía, el aumento de peso, los trastornos metabólicos, la hiperprolactinemia, la disfunción sexual, la sedación persistente y la prolon-gación del QT), el cambio por problemas de cumplimiento y el cambio de antipsicóticos en el trastorno bipolar. © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados. Los miembros del Grupo RECAP aparecen al final del artículo. * Autor para correspondencia.Revista de Psiquiatría Biológica y Salud Mental 07/2011; DOI:10.1016/j.rpsm.2011.07.003 · 0.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics have been repeatedly shown to be superior to placebo. However, the comparative efficacy among these drugs has not been systematically evaluated. In this study, we used Mixed Treatment Comparison (MTC) procedures to elucidate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of second-generation antipsychotics. Seven antipsychotics were selected based on the availability of the relevant data. Data were gathered from a series of review article published by the Cochrane Collaboration. Six outcome measures were analyzed: 1) percentage of no clinically important response as defined by the original authors, 2) PANSS total score change from baseline to endpoint, 3) percentage of akathisia, 4) percentage of antiparkinson medication use, 5) percentage of total body weight increase more than 7%, and 6) percentage of drop-out due to any reasons. All the second-generation antipsychotics included in this study showed fairly similar efficacy but widely different tolerability. In terms of efficacy, amisulpride, clozapine and olanzapine were ranked higher than aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine and olanzapine were superior in terms of akathisia and extrapyramidal symptom risk, but, far more prone to induce clinically important weight gain. Using MTC methodology, we could line up the second generation antipsychotics according to their hierarchical superiority in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Though the wide overlap among the confidence intervals and the inconsistency between the direct and indirect comparison results may limit the validity of these results, it may still allow the important insights into the relative merits of the available drugs.Psychiatry investigation 01/2015; 12(1):46-54. DOI:10.4306/pi.2015.12.1.46 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are characteristic symptoms of narcolepsy, as are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy patients may also experience daytime hallucinations unrelated to sleep–wake transitions. The effect of medication on hallucinations is of interest since treatment of narcolepsy may provoke psychotic symptoms. We aim to analyze the relation between sodium oxybate (SXB) treatment and psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy patients. Furthermore, we analyze the characteristics of hallucinations to determine their nature as mainly psychotic or hypnagogic and raise a discussion about whether SXB causes psychosis or if psychosis occurs as an endogenous complication in narcolepsy. Method: We present altogether four patients with narcolepsy who experienced psychotic symptoms during treatment with SXB. In addition, we searched the literature for descriptions of hallucinations in narcolepsy and similarities and differences with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Results: Three out of four patients had hallucinations typical for psychosis and one had symptoms that resembled aggravated hypnagogic hallucinations. Two patients also had delusional symptoms primarily associated with mental disorders. Tapering down SXB was tried and helped in two out of four cases. Adding antipsychotic treatment (risperidone) alleviated psychotic symptoms in two cases. Conclusion: Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy may appear during SXB treatment. Hallucinations resemble those seen in schizophrenia; however, the insight that symptoms are delusional is usually preserved. In case of SXB-induced psychotic symptoms or hallucinations, reducing SXB dose or adding antipsychotic medication can be tried.Frontiers in Neurology 08/2014; 5:136. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2014.00136