Post-operative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

Cancer Genetics, Westmead Hospital, Hawksberry Road, Westmead, NSW, Australia, 2145.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 01/2009; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000563.pub6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The addition of radiotherapy (RT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) was first shown to reduce the risk of ipsilateral recurrence in the treatment of invasive breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion. Recurrence of ipsilateral disease following BCS can be either DCIS or invasive breast cancer. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that RT can reduce the risk of recurrence, but assessment of potential long-term complications from addition of RT following BSC for DCIS has not been reported for women participating in RCTs.
To summarise the data from RCTs testing the addition of RT to BCS for treatment of DCIS to determine the balance between the benefits and harms.
We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (January 2008), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (February 2008), and EMBASE (February 2008). Reference lists of articles and handsearching of ASCO (2007), ESMO (2002 to 2007), and St Gallen (2005 to 2007) conferences were performed.
RCTs of breast conserving surgery with and without radiotherapy in women at first diagnosis of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (no invasive disease present).
Two authors independently assessed each potentially eligible trial for inclusion and its quality. Two authors also independently extracted data from published Kaplan-Meier analysis (survival curves) and reported summary statistics. Data were extracted and pooled for four trials. Data for planned subgroups were extracted and pooled for analysis.There were insufficient data to pool for long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
Four RCTs involving 3925 women were identified and included in this review. All were high quality with minimal risk of bias. Three trials compared the addition of RT to BCS. One trial was a two by two factorial design comparing the use of RT and tamoxifen, each separately or together, in which participants were randomised in at least one arm. Analysis confirmed a statistically significant benefit from the addition of radiotherapy on all ipsilateral breast events (hazards ratio (HR) 0.49; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.58, P < 0.00001), ipsilateral invasive recurrence (HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76, p=0.001) and ipsilateral DCIS recurrence (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.95, P = 0.03). All the subgroups analysed benefited from addition of radiotherapy. No significant long-term toxicity from radiotherapy was found. No information about short-term toxicity from radiotherapy or quality of life data were reported.
This review confirms the benefit of adding radiotherapy to breast conserving surgery for the treatment of all women diagnosed with DCIS. No long-term toxicity from use of radiotherapy was identified.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Often considered an "indolent" disease for which a treatment de-escalation is advocated, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has been recently shown to be associated with a significant increase in long-term mortality in case of invasive local recurrence (LR). The publication of data from four randomised trials did not prevent the continuation of the debates about the pros and cons of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for optimal DCIS management. Actually only partial answers regarding the impact of PORT on local control had been brought by these randomised trials among others due to differences in pathological assessment among these controlled studies. A biologically heterogeneous disease, DCIS is characterised by a large variation in clinical behaviour, which hampers the identification of those patients for whom PORT might be considered as an overtreatment. At the light of the most recent biological and clinical studies, this review tries to identify accurately the LR risks associated with both tumour- and patient-related factors and to analyse the treatment-related parameters impacting significantly on the patient outcome.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 07/2014; 112(1). · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 06/2013; 73(6):556-583. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To complement and update the 2007 practice guidelines of the breast cancer expert panel of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) for radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer. Owing to its growing clinical relevance, in the current version, a separate paper is dedicated to non-invasive proliferating epithelial neoplasia of the breast. In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines, this paper is especially focused on indication and technique of RT in addition to breast conserving surgery. The DEGRO expert panel performed a comprehensive survey of the literature comprising recently published data from clinical controlled trials, systematic reviews as well as meta-analyses, referring to the criteria of evidence-based medicine yielding new aspects compared to 2005 and 2007. The literature search encompassed the period 2008 to September 2012 using databases of PubMed and Guidelines International Network (G-I-N). Search terms were "non invasive breast cancer", "ductal carcinoma in situ, "dcis", "borderline breast lesions", "lobular neoplasia", "radiotherapy" and "radiation therapy". In addition to the more general statements of the German interdisciplinary S3 guidelines, this paper is especially focused on indications of RT and decision making of non-invasive neoplasia of the breast after surgery, especially ductal carcinoma in situ. Among different non-invasive neoplasia of the breast only the subgroup of pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; synonym ductal intraepithelial neoplasia, DIN) is considered for further recurrence risk reduction treatment modalities after complete excision of DCIS, particularly RT following breast conserving surgery (BCS), in order to avoid a mastectomy. About half of recurrences are invasive cancers. Up to 50 % of all recurrences require salvage mastectomy. Randomized clinical trials and a huge number of mostly observational studies have unanimously demonstrated that RT significantly reduces recurrence risks of ipsilateral DCIS as well as invasive breast cancer independent of patient age in all subgroups. The recommended total dose is 50 Gy administered as whole breast irradiation (WBI) in single fractions of 1.8 or 2.0 Gy given on 5 days weekly. Retrospective data indicate a possible beneficial effect of an additional tumor bed boost for younger patients. Prospective clinical trials of different dose-volume concepts (hypofractionation, accelerated partial breast irradiation, boost radiotherapy) are still ongoing. Postoperative radiotherapy permits breast conservation for the majority of women by halving local recurrence as well as reducing progression rates into invasive cancer. New data confirmed this effect in all patient subsets-even in low risk subgroups (LoE 1a).
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 12/2013; · 2.73 Impact Factor