Seroepidemiology of Fasciola Hepatica in Mersin province and surrounding towns and the role of family history of the Fascioliasis in the transmission of the parasite.
ABSTRACT Fascioliasis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica. This zoonosis may cause serious morbidity and a considerable financial burden. Knowledge about Fasciola hepatica and interest in this parasite have increased in Turkey recently. However, there have been few studies on the real prevalence of this condition in the country. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis and the role of family history of the condition in the transmission of the parasite in the province of Mersin.
Taking account of their populations, 729 people without a family history of fascioliasis and 155 people with a family history of fascioliasis from the city of Mersin and randomly selected three towns were included into the study to obtain a sample that well represented the population of the province of Mersin. A questionnaire composed of items about consumption of green leafy vegetables, stock-breeding and clinical symptoms of the disease was used to collect data. Excretory/ secretory (ES)-ELISA was used to detect IgG antibodies to Fasciola hepatica. People seropositive for Fasciola hepatica underwent abdominal ultrasonography, physical examination, biochemistry, and stool tests for the detection of Fasciola hepatica eggs.
A total of 0.79% of the participants were seropositive for Fasciola hepatica. One point ninety-three percent of the individuals with a family history of fascioliasis and 0.55% of the individuals without a family history of fascioliasis were seropositive for Fasciola hepatica. Out of 7 individuals found to be seropositive for Fasciola hepatica, 5 were female, 2 were male, and 4 had a family history of fascioliasis. Five and 4 patients, respectively, had a history of consuming green leafy vegetables and 4 had a history of stock-breeding. The clinical evaluation revealed that 4 patients had at least one sign of fascioliasis. Three patients had signs of fascioliasis on ultrasonography and 1 had Fasciola hepatica egg in stool examination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity for Fasciola hepatica between the individuals with and without a family history of fascioliasis (x2: 0.077, p>0.05).
The prevalence of fascioliasis was hypoendemic in the province of Mersin. There were no significant differences in the Fasciola hepatica prevalence between the groups with and without family history of fascioliasis. However, studies with larger sample sizes may reveal a difference.
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ABSTRACT: Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke of sheep and cattle, may accidentally infect humans. The main signs and symptoms of the fasciolosis are eosinophilia, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly and may also be attributed to Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, which is a prevalent infection in Turkey. Sera samples of 226 CE suspected cases were tested for anti-F. hepatica antibodies by an excretory secretory ELISA (ES-ELISA) and for anti-E. granulosus antibodies by ELISA and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests. Cases which were seropositive for fasciolosis were further evaluated radiologically and examined for F. hepatica eggs. Five (2.2%) and 96 (42.4%) of the 226 CE suspected cases were found seropositive for fasciolosis and CE, respectively. Although the radiological findings strongly suggested that there was fasciolosis in three cases, F. hepatica eggs were detected in two patients only. These data suggest that human fasciolosis is not as rare as previously reported in Turkey. F. hepatica infection should be suspected especially in the presence of eosinophilia, abdominal pain and liver lesions.Turkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Turkiye Parazitoloji Dernegi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology 01/2011; 35(2):77-80.