Topical Mupirocin/Sodium Hypochlorite Reduces Peritonitis and Exit-Site Infection Rates in Children

Department of Pediatrics, Renal Division, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 4.61). 10/2009; 4(12):1939-43. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.02770409
Source: PubMed


Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common maintenance renal replacement modality for children with ESRD frequently compromised by infectious peritonitis and catheter exit site and tunnel infections (ESI/TI). The effect of topical mupirocin (Mup) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution was evaluated as part of routine daily exit site care on peritonitis and ESI/TI rates, causative microorganisms, and catheter survival rates.
Retrospective chart review of children on home continuous cycling PD between April 1, 2001 and June 30, 2007 was performed. Infection rates were examined based on exit site protocol used in two different periods: Mup alone, April 1, 2001 to November 17, 2004; and Mup and NaOCl (Mup+NaOCl), November 18, 2004 to June 30, 2007.
Eighty-three patients (mean PD initiation age: 12.1 +/- 5.8 yr) received home PD over 2009 patient months. Annualized rates (ARs) for peritonitis decreased from 1.2 in the Mup period to 0.26 in the Mup+NaOCl period (P < 0.0001). ARs for ESI/TI decreased from 1.36 in the Mup period to 0.33 in the Mup+NaOCl period (P < 0.0001). No infections with Mup-resistant organisms were observed when either Mup or Mup+NaOCl was used for prophylaxis. Gram-negative-organism associated peritonitis decreased from an AR of 0.31 in the Mup period to 0.07 in the Mup+NaOCl period (P < 0.001). Infection-related catheter removal rates decreased from 1 in 38.9 catheter-months in the Mup period to 1 in 94.2 in the Mup+NaOCl period (P = 0.01). Catheter survival rates were longer in the Mup+NaOCl period (Kaplan-Meier, P < 0.009).
The combination Mup+NaOCl in daily exit site care was very effective to reduce PD catheter-associated infections and prolong catheter survival in pediatric patients.

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    • "While recent studies have reported very low rates of peritonitis (0.22-0.26 episodes/patient-year) in children with PD,13,14 peritonitis remains the primary cause of PD failure. The results of our study demonstrated that PD is safe for children requiring renal replacement therapy, and the prevalence of peritonitis in our study was comparable with other large pediatric studies.1,2,15 "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Relatively little is known on the microbiology, risk factors and outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis in Korean children. We performed this study in order to evaluate the incidence, treatment and clinical outcomes of peritonitis in pediatric PD patients at Severance Hospital. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 57 PD patients younger than 18 years during the period between June 1, 1986 and December 31, 2011. The collected data included gender, age at commencement of PD, age at peritonitis, incidence of peritonitis, underlying causes of end stage renal disease, microbiology of peritonitis episodes, antibiotics sensitivity, modality and outcomes of PD. Results We found 56 episodes of peritonitis in 23 of the 57 PD patients (0.43 episodes/patient-year). Gram-positive bacteria were the most commonly isolated organisms (40 episodes, 71.4%). Peritonitis developed in 17 patients during the first 6 months following initiation of PD (73.9%). Peritonitis episodes rarely resulted in relapse or the need for permanent hemodialysis and no patient deaths were directly attributable to peritonitis. Antibiotic regimens included cefazolin+tobramycin from the years of 1986 to 2000 and cefazolin+ceftazidime from the years of 2001 to 2011. While antibiotic therapy was successful in 48 episodes (85.7%), the treatment was ineffective in 8 episodes (14.3%). The rate of continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) peritonitis was statistically higher than that of automated PD (APD) (p=0.025). Conclusion Peritonitis was an important complication of PD therapy and we observed a higher incidence of PD peritonitis in patients with CAPD when compared to APD.
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of peritonitis associated with infections of the peritoneal catheter exit site can be reduced by the use of proper exit-site care, such as the routine administration of prophylactic antibiotics at the exit site. Studies that demonstrate the efficacy of such an approach or similar approaches continue to be published.
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