Novel LMF1 nonsense mutation in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia.
ABSTRACT Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) gene is a novel candidate gene in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Lmf1 is involved in the maturation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase in endoplasmic reticulum. To date only one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and related disorders was found to be homozygous for a nonsense mutation in LMF1 gene (Y439X).
The objective of the study was to investigate LMF1 gene in hypertriglyceridemic patients in whom mutations in LPL, APOC2, and APOA5 genes had been excluded.
The resequencing of LMF1 gene led to the discovery of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. The mutation causes a G>A substitution in exon 9 (c.1395G>A), leading to a premature stop codon (W464X). LPL activity and mass were reduced by 76 and 50%, respectively, compared with normolipidemic controls. The proband over the years has shown a good response to treatment. The proband's son, heterozygous for the W464X, shows normal plasma triglyceride levels.
We identified the second novel pathogenic mutation in LMF1 gene in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia. LPL deficiency in our patient was milder than in the carrier of the Y439X previously described.
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ABSTRACT: GPIHBP1, a small glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, is required for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. GPIHBP1 knockout mice exhibit chylomicronemia, even on a low-fat diet, with plasma triglyceride levels of 3,500-5,000 mg/dl. GPIHBP1 is expressed highly in heart, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, the same tissues that express high levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In each of these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located in capillary endothelial cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with a GPIHBP1 expression vector bind LPL and chylomicrons avidly. The expression of GPIHBP1 in mice is modulated by fasting and refeeding and is also regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists. Here, we review recent progress in understanding GPIHBP1 and discuss its role in lipolysis.The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2008; 50 Suppl:S57-62. · 4.39 Impact Factor
Article: Lipoprotein lipase in diabetes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase has a central role in the metabolism of both triglyceride-rich particles and high density lipoproteins, and it is one determinant of both serum triglyceride and HDL concentrations. In man the enzyme activity in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is insulin dependent, and therefore it varies in diabetes according to ambient insulin level and insulin sensitivity. In insulin deficiency (untreated Type 1 diabetes) the enzyme activity in both adipose tissue and muscle tissue is low but increases upon insulin therapy. In chronically insulin-treated patients with good control, the enzyme activity in postheparin plasma is increased. In untreated Type 2 diabetic patients, the average enzyme activity in adipose tissue and postheparin plasma is normal or subnormal. Therapy with oral agents or insulin, resulting in good glycemic control, is followed by an increase of LPL activity in both adipose tissue and postheparin plasma. In both Types 1 and 2 diabetes, changes of LPL activity are associated with relevant alterations in lipoprotein pattern. In insulin deficiency with low LPL, serum total and VLDL triglyceride levels are elevated, and HDL concentration is reduced. In chronically insulin-treated patients with high LPL activity, VLDL triglyceride concentrations are normal or subnormal, and HDL level is increased. In untreated Type 2 diabetic patients subnormal LPL activity may contribute to the elevation of serum triglycerides and to the reduction of HDL level.Diabetes / Metabolism Reviews 05/1987; 3(2):551-70.
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ABSTRACT: GPIHBP1 is an endothelial cell protein that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and chylomicrons. Because GPIHBP1 deficiency causes chylomicronemia in mice, we sought to determine whether some cases of chylomicronemia in humans could be attributable to defective GPIHBP1 proteins. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (n=60, with plasma triglycerides above the 95th percentile for age and gender) were screened for mutations in GPIHBP1. A homozygous GPIHBP1 mutation (c.344A>C) that changed a highly conserved glutamine at residue 115 to a proline (p.Q115P) was identified in a 33-year-old male with lifelong chylomicronemia. The patient had failure-to-thrive as a child but had no history of pancreatitis. He had no mutations in LPL, APOA5, or APOC2. The Q115P substitution did not affect the ability of GPIHBP1 to reach the cell surface. However, unlike wild-type GPIHBP1, GPIHBP1-Q115P lacked the ability to bind LPL or chylomicrons (d < 1.006 g/mL lipoproteins from Gpihbp1(-/-) mice). Mouse GPIHBP1 with the corresponding mutation (Q114P) also could not bind LPL. A homozygous missense mutation in GPIHBP1 (Q115P) was identified in a patient with chylomicronemia. The mutation eliminated the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind LPL and chylomicrons, strongly suggesting that it caused the patient's chylomicronemia.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 04/2009; 29(6):956-62. · 6.34 Impact Factor