We previously developed a calcium phosphate (CaP) calcifying solution that allows to deposit a uniform layer of nanocrystalline apatite on metallic implants in a few hours. In this work we modified the composition of the CaP solution by addition of Sr(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+), in order to improve the biological performance of the implants. The results of the investigation performed on the coatings, as well as on the powders precipitated in the absence of the substrates, indicate that both Sr(2+) and Mg(2+) reduce the extent of precipitation, although they are quantitatively incorporated into the nanocrystalline apatitic phase. The inhibitory effect on deposition is much more evident for Mn(2+), which completely hinders the precipitation of apatite and yields just a small amount of amorphous phosphate relatively rich in manganese content. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on the different materials show that the Mg(2+) and Sr(2+) apatitic coatings promote proliferation and expression of collagen type I, with respect to bare Ti and to the thin layer of amorphous phosphate obtained in the presence of Mn(2+). However, the relatively high content of Mn(2+) in the phosphate has a remarkable beneficial effect on osteocalcin production, which is even greater than that observed for Sr(2+).
"Positive effects of Mg enrichment of inorganic biomaterials in vitro have been reported. Mg-enriched HA has stimulated osteoblast adhesion  and proliferation   . Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from both human bone marrow and human adipose tissue was superior on the Mg-containing bioceramic akermanite compared to the commonly used CaP bone replacement material beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester whose low melting point facilitates production of 3D porous scaffolds with precisely defined dimensions and internal architecture by rapid prototyping techniques. To improve the suitability of such PCL scaffolds for bone regeneration applications, they were coated with inorganic layers of calcium phosphate (CaP) and CaP doped with 0.6% w/v magnesium (CaP+Mg) using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and characterized in vitro using osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.
"In literature, there are studies to improve the biological performance of HA with the substitution of various ions (Sr, Mn, Mg, among others)  . Moreover, it has been reported that doping HA structures with different ions such as Mg 2+ could improve mineralization of calcified tissues and indirectly influence mineral metabolism    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TiN and (Ti,Mg)N thin film coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (arc-PVD) technique with magnesium contents of 0, 4.24 at % (low Mg) and 10.42 at% (high Mg). The presence of magnesium on both normal (hFOB) and cancer (SaOS-2) osteoblast cell behavior was investigated in (Ti,Mg)N surfaces with or without prior hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition (in simulated body fluid, SBF). Mg incorporation on TiN films was found to have no apparent effect on the cell proliferation in bare surfaces but cell spreading was better on low Mg content surface for hFOB cells. SaOS-2 cells, on the other hand, showed an increased extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition on low Mg surfaces but ECM deposition almost disappeared when Mg content was increased above 10 at%. HA deposited surfaces with high Mg content was shown to cause a significant decrease in cell viability. While the cells were flattened, elongated and spread over the surface in contact with each other via cellular extensions on unmodified and low Mg doped surfaces, unhealthy morphologies of cells with round shape with a limited number of extended arms was visualized on high Mg containing samples. In summary, Mg incorporation into the TiN coatings by arc-PVD technique and successive HA deposition led to promising cell responses on low Mg content surfaces for a better osteointegration performance.
New Biotechnology 12/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nbt.2014.11.006 · 2.90 Impact Factor
"There has recently been an increased focus on the effects of trace elements on biological processes, particularly in the field of bone formation and in the study of essential elements. With regard to the divalent cations, there have, to date, been a variety of studies on manganese (Mn) (6–9). Mn is an essential trace element in the human body, and it has the most potent capacity for binding to integrins, and for mediating the binding of ligands to various integrins, at low concentrations (6,10–12). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the bioactivity of manganese-incorporated TiO2 (Mn-TiO2) coating prepared on titanium (Ti) plate by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in Ca-, P- and Mn-containing electrolytes. The surface topography, phase and element compositions of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The adhesion of osteoblast-like MG63 cells onto Ti, TiO2 and Mn-TiO2 surfaces was evaluated, and the signal transduction pathway involved was confirmed by the sequential expression of the genes for integrins β1, β3, α1 and α3, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), including ERK1 and ERK2. The results obtained indicated that Mn was successfully incorporated into the porous nanostructured TiO2 coating, and did not alter the surface topography or the phase composition of the coating. The adhesion of the MG63 cells onto the Mn-incorporated TiO2 coating was significantly enhanced compared with that on the Mn-free TiO2 coating and the pure Ti plates. In addition, the enhanced cell adhesion on the Mn-TiO2 coatings may have been mediated by the binding of the integrin subunits, β1 and α1, and the subsequent signal transduction pathway, involving FAK and ERK2. The study indicated that the novel Mn-TiO2 coating has potential for orthopedic implant applications, and that further investigations are required.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2013; 6(3):707-714. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1204 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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