Reaction between nitric oxide, glutathione, and oxygen in the presence and absence of protein: How are S-nitrosothiols formed?
ABSTRACT The reaction between NO, thiols, and oxygen has been studied in some detail in vitro due to its perceived importance in the mechanism of NO-dependent signal transduction. The formation of S-nitrosothiols and thiol disulfides from this chemistry has been suggested to be an important component of the biological chemistry of NO, and such subsequent thiol modifications may result in changes in cellular function and phenotype. In this study we have reinvestigated this reaction using both experiment and simulation and conclude that: (i) S-nitrosation through radical and nonradical pathways is occurring simultaneously, (ii) S-nitrosation through direct addition of NO to thiol does not occur to any meaningful extent, and (iii) protein hydrophobic environments do not catalyze or enhance S-nitrosation of either themselves or of glutathione. We conclude that S-nitrosation and disulfide formation in this system occur only after the initial reaction between NO and oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide, and that hydrophobic protein environments are unlikely to play any role in enhancing and targeting S-nitrosothiol formation.
SourceAvailable from: Kamala Katepogu
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 12/2014; 3(10):1517. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondria are critical mediators of cellular redox homeostasis due to their role in the generation and dissipation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Modulations in ROS/RNS levels in the mitochondria are often reflected through oxidation/nitrosation of highly redox-sensitive cysteine residues within this organelle. Oxidation/nitrosation of functional cysteines on mitochondrial proteins serves to modulate protein activity, localization, and complexation in response to cellular stress, thereby controlling critical processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, and redox signalling. In this review, we describe mitochondrial sources of ROS/RNS, cysteine modifications that are triggered by increased mitochondrial ROS/RNS, and examples of key mitochondrial proteins that are regulated through cysteine-mediated redox signalling. We highlight recent advancements in proteomic methods to study cysteine posttranslational modifications. These tools will further aid in illuminating the important role of cysteine in maintaining and transducing redox signals in the mitochondria.Molecular BioSystems 12/2014; 11(3). DOI:10.1039/C4MB00571F · 3.18 Impact Factor